This section will focus on the motivators of oil rich countries in the renewable energy field. Renewable energy can be defined simply as energy that comes from resources which are continually replenished by a period of time. From this simple definition it could be expected that use and introduction of renewable energy projects emerge and are promoted by countries with shortage of non-renewable sources and/or under a high risk of environmental degradation caused by those sources. Also it could be said that environmental awareness is higher in democratic countries with the accountability of the governing bodies, freedom of speech, press and etc. But especially in the last decade investments in the renewable energy projects significantly increased in oil rich countries.
The need for proliferation of renewable energy projects could be seen as in almost all of the scholars’ ideas in the field of environmental studies. Schindewolf and Böddeker (2010) are addressed this need by elaborating different aspects of the issue. CO2 avoidance in terms of global warming threat consists the main reason of renewable energy projects for sure. Although current scientific facts shows that climate change is far closer than the known fossil fuel reserves are gone, according to Schindewolf and Böddeker another fundamental reason is the finiteness of fossil fuels.
Which renewable energy projects are being implemented and planned to take part in oil rich countries could carry a torch for enlightening the initiatives. In the book of Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications (2011; 283) Dincer and Zamfirescu defines basics of the renewable energy. In this context general features for all renewable energies are defined as: they are intermittent, fluctuant in intensity, and regionally or globally available. These features have important results for every region as well as the Middle East. The renewable energy features are analyzed in more detail, and the systems used to harvest and convert these energies are also presented in the work of Dincer and Zamfirescu.
The underlying factors that could influence governments’ decisions to adopt renewable energy policies are examined in Gallagher’s (2013) article. Gallagher (2013) classifies these factors as: (1) economic motives; (2) a high endowment of renewable resources and/or a low endowment of nonrenewable sources; (3) the political system; and (4) cultural factors and attitudes. The author used Germany, China, Denmark and certain U.S. states (Colorado, Texas, and Ohio) as case studies. In the diversity of these cases in terms of the defined factors some general conclusions are presented such as importance of local support. But the differences could also be presented as a basis for oil rich countries’ unique motives.
Even in the last decade the efforts to implement renewable energy projects in the oil rich countries are increased rapidly, the developments had been relatively low for a long period. To show the advancements...