Motors And Generators. Essay

1924 words - 8 pages

Magnetism and Moving charges*Oersted had showed in the 19th century that a current carrying conductor was surrounded by a magnetic field*Moving charges experience a force in a magnetic fieldFactors that effect the magnitude of force*F = ILBsinƒÖVan Allen Radiation belts - example pf motion of charged particles in a field*Charged particles trapped inside the earth's magnetic field, which oscillate back and forth between the poles*These charged particles experience a force due to earth's magnetic field*Force strong perpendicular, none parallel - always has parallel and perpendicular components - there spiral out of controlForces on Parallel wires*Like current attract*Unlike currents repel*F = k I1I2L dThe Ampere*Defined in terms of the force between two parallel current carrying wires*One ampere flows in each infinitely long parallel wires, separated by 1 meter in a vacuum - force exerted is 2 x 10-7Experiment - Investigating the motor effect*Use of a current balance - on knife edgesMotor effect*The motion produced by the force acting in a current carrying wire in a magnetic field is called the motor effect*'Torque experienced by a current carrying wire in a magnetic field'Torque is defined as the turning moment of a force*T = Fd*Product of the force and perpendicular distance from axis to line of action of forceForces experienced by a current carrying loop in a magnetic filed*A current carrying loop in a magnetic field experiences a torque*Wire is catapulted from string B to weak B*Two long parallel wires - like currents attract, unlike repelRadial Magnetic field*Pole pieces of magnet are curved - thus coil always lies parallel to field - torque always maxElectric Motors*Convert electrical energy into mechanical energy*Classified as eitheroAC motors - induction, SynchronousoDC motors - Commutator motors*Consists of the followingoRotor - rotating partoStator - stationary part*In some cases the rotor carries the current, while stator provides magnetic field*In other cases B is the rotor, and stator carries IFeatures of DC*Armature*Magnetic field - permanent or electromagnets*Commutator - reverses direction of I every half turn*Conducting brushes - takes I to and from armatureArmature and Field Structure*Armature - number of coils are wrapped around iron core - free to rotate around the horizontal axis*Simple field structure - permanent magnets or electromagnets (more effective - larger magnetic field)*Curved magnets improve smoothness of torque - always max*Rectangular armature - located between field structureImportance of Commutator*Reverses direction of I every half turn - enables continuous spin of armature*Each commutator segment connected to either side of Armature*Momentum helps the process which creates a continuous motion in one directionRole of metal split ring and brushes in commutator*Metal split ringoCopper cylinder - 2 electronically separate halfsoEach half connected to one side of the armature*Conducting brushesoBrushes...

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