1.0 Topic Definition
Volcanic Eruption, which means the sudden occurrence of a violent discharge of steam and volcanic material, is one of the catastrophes in human history. It can devastate enormous areas, as well as people. The eruption of the Vesuvius in AD 79 buried the cities of Herculaneum, Pompeii and Stabiae with ashes and mud. (Oracle think quest) The majority of ancient volcanoes, like Mt. Vesuvius in Italy and Mt. Tambora in Indonesia are all dormant volcanoes now. However, Mt. Etna, which have been erupting for millions of years, still remaining active now. (Sicily Life) From 4 May 2011 to 6 May, it erupted and emitted enormous lava - molten rock - and ashes - chemical composition and abrasive of the particles from a volcanic eruption - into the air. For the sake of it is one of the most active volcanoes in the world, acquire the basic information about volcano and Mt. Etna is essential.
The eruption history of Etna started since 1500 BC. (Mount Etna- Italy) Its eruption history experienced different eruption styles, including violent explosions and voluminous lava flows. (Jessica Ball) Flank eruptions of Mount Etna occur every six years on average resulting from dikes form the central conduit intersecting the surface. (Revise Mapping of Lava Flows on Mt. Etna, Sicily) One of the most violet eruptions was in 1852. Mt. Etna produce more than 2 billion cubic feet of lava and over three square miles have been covered. The longest eruption began in 1979 which lasted for 13 years. (Mount Etna Volcano)
The eruptions of Mount Etna undergo fluctuations in time. The fluctuations represent stages of cycle on a scale of decades and centuries. (Behncke, B., Neri, M., 2003) Since the eruption in 1865, with four complete cycles, recurrent patterns are strong evidences and a fifth cycle began in 1993. There are three phases in each cycle. It begins with low-level activity and continuous summit activity and a series of flank eruption are following. The last phase is commonly the most voluminous. (Behncke, B., Neri, M., 2003) The trend of Mt. Etna eruption is becoming similar to that of the 17th century.
Although Mt. Etna is said to eruption since 1500 BC, according to Michael Abrams, Remo Bianchi and David Pieri, only historical records for the last 350 years are accurate. Records before year 1650 are incomplete and controversial.
3.0 Science Organization
The eruption of Mt. Etna belongs to the volcanology, which is a study of volcanoes. It also relates to geology in that the most convincing reason of the eruption of Mt. Etna is plate tectonic setting. Mt. Etna is related to the subduction of the African plate under the Eurasian plate. (Jessica Ball) There are also other theories explains the eruption, including rifting processes, a hot spot and intersection of structural breaks in the crust. (Jessica Ball)
In order to predict the volcanic eruption, seismograph monitoring is often used. Seismograph monitoring is...