Muawiya's Claim To Caliphate Was Due To His Lust For Power, Status And Personal Gain. Discuss.

2023 words - 8 pages

The conflict throughout Ali's reign between himself and Muawiya was supposedly due to his reluctance and decision not to find and punish Uthman's killers, and hence regarded as an indirect accomplice in the murder. This seemed to be sufficient reason for Muawiya not to pay allegiance to him, as it was his duty as an Arab chieftain to avenge Uthman's death . However, historians such as Kennedy, tend to agree with the Shia view, "treating this claim as a feeble pretext for his actions." The Shia especially tends to disgrace and humiliate Muawiya, vilifying him for his opposition to Ali out of sheer lust for power and status . However Shia and Sunni historians tend to be biased on their views of Muawiya, thus diminishes their reliability and proper judgement on his character and rule. Sources and historical knowledge on his life and career are very scarce and of his inner motives and purposes we know even less.General consensus among historians, although a simplistic one, states that the main reason behind Muawiya's rebellion against Ali was vengeance for Uthman. While it may be perceived as just that, only a few have managed to delve deeper into the underlying reasons behind Muawiya's actions. Some traditionists such as al-Jurjani, Baladhuri and Awana have a totally different outlook, eliminating Muawiya and holding that Amr b. al-As was the one who initiated and organized the agitation and combats against Ali in Syria. Amr was a cunning political genius, who was also behind the arbitration that deposed Ali, and thus possible that he was the brains behind Muawiya. Other views re-examine the revolt against Uthman. Several reports accused Muawiya of sensing the imminent catastrophe and exploiting it for his own selfish ends and "began scheming and desired Uthman's killing so as to succeed him as caliph" while others showed him in a favourable light - claiming he came to Uthman's appeals as soon as he realised how serious the situation was but was just too late. According to Madelung, "Uthman had meant little to him; he had done nothing to aid him and felt no personal obligation to seek revenge." From this evidence and Muawiya's deliberate delay for Uthman's appeals for help, it is thus conflicting with his reason for opposing Ali - blood vengeance; this was in fact a great 'political utility' for his own secular ambitions and just a way to satisfy his Umayyad kinsmen who look to him for leadership and to avoid alienation.This claim is further supported since his launch for vengeance in Syria was only after the battle of the Camel, six months or more after Uthman's murder. Coincidentally after the first civil war, which further stained Ali's image as caliph, Muawiya demanded that a Shura be set up for the purpose of nominating an untarnished caliph. If he was so keen to seek revenge, why did he wait that long? Instead, the difficult position he was in had spurred him into action. Ali had dismissed most of the provincial governors appointed by his...

Find Another Essay On Muawiya's claim to caliphate was due to his lust for power, status and personal gain. Discuss.

Was the British Empire a good thing that enlarged the world creating possibilities for everyone or was it just a way for some to gain power and wealth?

772 words - 3 pages required, and Britain's self image of power gave it the will to use force if necessary. Imperialism is the way in which a group gains formal or informal influence over another group's politics, society, and economy.Firstly, there isn't an explanation why Britain gained so much global power so suddenly. It has been said that perhaps it was due to British superiority economically as well as its technology. British expansion during the 19th century


2583 words - 10 pages no succession of leadership.The story of Samson can be seen as the transition from the period of judges to the period of the monarchy. Samson, although the most gifted of the judges, had a tragic flaw; he was pitifully unable to control his lust for women. Samson's personal desire for women affected his ability to reason, and thus hindered his ability to lead the people of Israel. With his great physical strength and hot temper, Samson single

Australia was a better place in which to live for women in 1945 than it was in 1900.' Discuss this statement with reference to the status of women

1752 words - 7 pages attending university. Women were becoming more versatile and had added freedom, however societal attitudes were still slowly and reluctantly changing to accommodate the changing roles of women during this time period.The changing roles of women within Australian society largely developed due to their position in the workforce. Women were discriminated against due to a significant gap in the basic wage. Employment for women was scarce at the beginning

Odysseus is able to survive due to his amazing personal qualities displayed throughout the Odyssey, by Homer

584 words - 2 pages , by Homer, Odysseus showed amazing personal qualities that enabled him to survive his adventures.His third stop on his voyage home to Ithaca was the land of the Cyclopes, where Odysseus successfully escaped danger. Odysseus showed guile when creating his escape plan. Odysseus fed Polyphemus (the Cyclops who captured him and his troops and kept them hostage inside his cave) wine to make him drunk. To trick Polyphemus when he was drunk, Odysseus said

Assess the view that the collapse of the Weimar Republic was primarily due to the appeal of Hitler and his Nazi Party

1976 words - 8 pages Modern History Assessment"Assess the view that the collapse of the Weimar Republic was primarily due to the appeal of Hitler and his Nazi Party."The Weimar Republic was incepted after the fall of the Hollenzollern Dynasty in 1918, and was, from the outset, a government riddled with weakness and incompetence in a variety of crucial social, economic and political areas. This social democratic regime was vulnerable to a range of influences

Why Macbeth Was A Tragedy. (Shakespeare) This essay describes the main aspects of macbeths downfall due to his excessive ambition

703 words - 3 pages prophecy concerning the thane of Cawdor materialized despite the apparent hindrance of the previous thane so it is difficult to tell why MacBeth did not simply wait for a similar twist in fate to give him the throne.MacBeth was placed in a difficult situation. The temptation of the prophecy was very seductive and his wife was very ambitious and convincing yet despite this, MacBeth was prey to his own lust for power and is after all is said and done

Due to racism in 1930's Chicago, Bigger Thomas was influenced to commit an action unlike his normal judgement would allow

1338 words - 5 pages for them.''And you eat with 'em.''Aw, Bessie...' (124)To Bigger, admitting that he socialized with whites labels him as an outcast with black society. Exiled from his friends, Bigger's uneasiness turns to resentment against whites and, in turn, becomes a feeling of anger. "He flushed warm with anger. Goddam her soul to hell! Was she laughing at him?" (67) "He felt naked, transparent; he felt that this white man, having helped to put him down

Analysis of the Claim that Mussolini’s Successful Rise to Power by 1922 Was Largely a Consequence of the Impact of the First World War

2697 words - 11 pages authority to secure political power for his own later use; this meant that the black-shirted actions squads were taking law into their own hands, and by doing so, they were eliminating all those who dared to oppose this fascist movement. To some degree, this use of intimidation was very effective, for it meant that fascism would gain support by force which was obviously directed by fear within the supporters. An example of this

A combination of tsarist incompetence and popular dissatisfaction led to February 1917, but in October it was Bolsheviks armed with radical ideas that seized power. Discuss

1949 words - 8 pages representatives from Germany and Austria.# Although many factors including the tsars incompetence during the war and the ongoing economical and industrial problems facing the country all contributed to the change in government, it was the Bolsheviks who were able to seize power and control of the country due to their growing support amongst the people and the publics enthusiasm for their radical ideas which they hoped would make Russia a leading

"The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time." Haddon is able to gain our understanding of Christopher because we learn to see things from his perspective. Discuss

628 words - 3 pages of his family under his nose. And yet, his investigations lead him to the heart of the problem. It can sometimes be difficult for the reader to have a better grasp on what is happening then the narrator, yet, at the same time it give us a deeper knowledge of Christopher’s perception of the world. His literal, ploddingly logical and sometimes brilliantly poignant observations show us how absurd ordinary life can be without all the everyday

'Wallace was an outsider, so it's no wonder we don't remember him as a great scientist. He didn't limit his research to proper scientific subjects. Discuss

1210 words - 5 pages bible' (OU resource book3,p66). Wallace views on socialism and his skepticism of religion are starting to become evident 2 facts that were to later influence his own personal scientific studies.So, what were the boundaries of 'proper scientific subjects' and who sought to define them? In the 1830's an association for the development of science was formed. It was called the British Association for the Advancement of Science, set up by a group of

Similar Essays

Why Was Mussolini Able To Rise To Power And What Was His Continued Basis For Support?

1082 words - 4 pages keep hold of his power.Therefore, in conclusion Mussolini's rise to power was a road that had no other ends due to the present circumstances of the time. His continued basis for support relied mainly on the eradication of opposition and the usage of propaganda. It can be justly said that Mussolini was the first dictator to successfully establish and maintain power in the 21st Century.

Pride And Prejudice: Marrying Someone Due To His Or Her Financial Status

2245 words - 9 pages ). There is no passion, no affection, and no companionship. The only warmth in the relationship will not stem from love but rather from the custom fireplace in the parlor of their respectable abode. Mr. Collins, unsatisfied with his unwed status, marries the image of being a husband in an effort to gain approval from the upper elitists and to satisfy the “particular advice and recommendation of [a] very noble lady,” his patron (84). Although

How Did Hitler Consolidate His Power And Continue To Gain Support, Using Propaganda, After Taking Power?

1723 words - 7 pages Treaty of Versailles; his need for an army was significant, considering his plans for the future of Germany. Through his inclusion of the youth in his propaganda campaigns, Hitler further consolidated his power after becoming chancellor.The Nazi Party utilized propaganda most effectively to gain further support, especially through the careful familiarization of themselves with their audience, and their decision to include a large variety of

How Valid Is The Claim That In 1914 States Went To War Due To Fear Rather Then Motives Of Gain?

1201 words - 5 pages without any potential allies except for Austria-Hungary. This 'conspiracy' against Germany led to her fear of encirclement and their alliance, therefore, was not because of strong mutual sympathy or the Gross Deutschland ideal, but simply due to this fear of encirclement- Austria-Hungary was the only option.As Germany was relatively young, full of energy, ambitions, and primarily a respect-wanting country, its main potential gain- if a war was to