Streptococcus pneumoniae is Gram-positive bacteria, which takes spherical shape, normally present in the form of pairs. These bacteria exist naturally in the respiratory tract, but it may become a pathogenic bacteria in the event of increased its density. These bacteria associated with different types of infections, such as pneumonia, chronic middle ear infections, meningitis, bacteremia. Pneumonia is one of the six major causes leads to death in the United States and the first reason of death from infectious diseases (Garibaldi, 1995 ; Niederman, et al 1998 cited in American Thoracic Society, 2001). Diseases caused by pneumonia was not previously diagnosed clearly, consequently, the information about its pathological effects based on simple estimates (Garibaldi, 1995 ; Niederman, et al 1998 cited in American Thoracic Society, 2001). Whitney (2000) investigate that strains of bacteria have resistance to antibiotics made treatment more complicated. The main point is pneumococci becoming more resistant to common antibiotics. Whitney (2000) mainly argued that there are dramatic increases in the proportion of pneumococci that are resistant to antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents tested. This essay will firstly summarize this article and then follow by foundation and finally will discuss the impact.
It will be summarized the article of Whitney, (2000) increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae in the United States (Whitney et al 2000). The main point is pneumococci becoming more resistant to antibiotics. In the beginning of the 90s of the past century, the United States was experiencing a serious and worried about the emergence of S. Pneumoniae strains that have a high level of resistance to common antibiotics, especially penicillin (Breiman, et al 1994 cited in Whitney, 2000). Furthermore, antibiotics resistance caused the treatment failures of pneumococcal diseases (Sloas, et al 1992; Catalan, 1994 cited in Whitney, 2000). An unclear correlation between drug resistance and treatment failures among patients with pneumococcal ( Austrain and Gold, 1964; Kramer, et al,1987 cited in Whitney, 2000) was consequently leading to increase in the mortality ( Deeke, et al, 1999; Turett, et al,1999 cited in Whitney, 2000). The main argument that there are dramatic increases in the proportion of pneumococci that are resistant to antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents tested (Whitney, 2000). Despite the high percentage of pneumococcal strains had a sensitivity to some drugs, the multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae remained cause infections, as a result the situation became worse (Whitney, 2000).
Sensitivity test was conducted for Pneumococcal isolates in the laboratory depending on the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCL) (Clinical Laboratory Standards, 1997 cited in Whitney, 2000). Isolates from different places in the USA were tested for sensitivity to a...