Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Essay

2298 words - 9 pages

In order to successfully understand TB, its physiology must be understood. TB is brought on by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, “a strain with limited genetic diversity and no significant animal or environmental reservoir,” (Cook, et al., 2009, p. 41). Even without a known site where the bacteria are most prevalent, the bacteria can still be dangerous in small numbers as the bacteria are distinctly adept at and avoiding the immune systems of its host (p. 41). “M. tuberculosis is also able to adapt to very different intracellular environments including: phagosomes in macrophages and dendritic cells, granulomas and even fat cells,” (p. 41).
Phagosomes are vesicles which form around pathogens and ultimately destroy said pathogens (Tessema, Koets, & Rutten, 2011, p. 157). In order to fully achieve its goal of eliminating the pathogen a phagosome must fuse with a lysosome. Once fused, enzymes contained within the lysosome work at digesting/eliminating the pathogens contained within the phagosome (pp. 157-158). M. tuberculosis is skilled at preventing this fusion allowing the bacteria to successfully avoid detection by the immune system (pp. 159-160).
Granulomas are collections of macrophages used to separate the body from foreign particles (p. 158). Granulomas containing M. tuberculosis have necrosis, meaning that the cell will eat away and degrade the surrounding tissues (p. 158). The TB disease is extremely dangerous and fatal if left untreated, and with the various drug-resistant strains in the world the need for worldwide awareness of TB is vital.
In order to determine if someone has TB one can take a TB skin test or a blood test. These are preliminary tests, so if someone tests positive for TB then a physician can provide other forms of testing to determine if the person infected is latent or has the disease. Treatment of latent TB involves the use of antibiotics such as isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), and rifapentine. When treating the TB disease medications used include INH, RIF, ethambutol (EMB), and pyrazinamide (PZA) (CDC, 2014, p. 1). These drugs seek out and kill the mycobacterium (p. 2). The most effect drugs in combatting TB are isoniazid and rifampicin, “Isoniazid, the most powerful mycobactericidal drug available, ensures early sputum conversion and helps in decreasing the transmission of TB. Rifampicin, by its mycobactercidal and sterilizing activities is crucial for preventing relapses,” (Sharma & Mohan, 2004, p. 355).
Prevention (BCG)
There haven’t been any new vaccines to treat TB for almost 80 years and research to create new vaccinations is ongoing (Montañés & Gicquel, 2011, p. 58). Some researchers are looking at improving the bacilli Calmette-Guerin vaccine (BCG). “Numerous subunit vaccines have been developed using different experimental approaches. The justification for these vaccines is that a few antigens can achieve the same protection that comes with the complete bacteria and...

Find Another Essay On Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Essay

732 words - 3 pages different kinds varying in strength and effectiveness. When pathogenic bacteria become able to withstand more than one different treatment they are called multidrug resistant bacteria. These multidrug resistant bacteria are becoming a serious concern in the modern-day medical field. The Center of Disease Control (C.D.C) has gone as far as prioritizing bacteria as “urgent, serious, and concerning”. The C.D.C. (2013) states, “In the United States, more

Report on Tuberculosis

870 words - 3 pages tuberculosis bacilli. Some strains can be resistant to one or more drugs.WHO defines a multidrug resistance (MDR) strain as one that is at least resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin.Drug resistance is caused by inadequate treatment and poor tuberculosis programmes. The most common reasons for the development of resistance are:a) Incorrect prescriptionb) Irregular supply of drugsc) Noncompliance of treatmentd) Lack of supervision and follow upWHO in order

The Rise of Antibiotic Resistant Diseases

1669 words - 7 pages become the top cause of death in the United States again without a cure. The current solution is Directly Observed Treatment Short-course, DOTS Plus. The DOTS program was originally developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to effectively treat tuberculosis in many countries; but once there started to be antibiotic resistant strains, the DOTS program was altered to address these new strains. The goal of DOTS Plus is to make detecting multidrug


1947 words - 8 pages national pool of immunocompromised individuals uniquely vulnerable to TB disease. In the midst of resurgence, there was a frightening subepidemic of multidrug-resistant TB, stemming largely from widespread noncompletion of treatment. Multidrug-resistant TB required a more complex, longer course of treatment and, in immunocompromised patients, led to extremely high fatality rates if not adequately treated. Many of these causative factors intersected

Provesicular Dry Powder Formulations for Pulmonary Delivery of Anti-tubercular Drugs

1214 words - 5 pages subsequent relapse, anticipation of death and drug resistance, inhibition to transmission. The chemotherapy of TB includes the combination of drugs for a long period. Directly observed treatment (DOTS) comprises the 4 drugs i.e. rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Chemotherapy of tuberculosis is complex due to multidrug regimen that needs to be administered for long period of time making it more susceptible to incidence such as side

Tuberculosis: Recent Findings on Epidemiology & Pathology and their Implications for Treatment Management

1951 words - 8 pages ) TB. Animal Models Animal models involving mice, rabbits and guinea pigs have significantly contributed to our understanding of M. tuberculosis. Different animal models pose their own set of advantages and limitations. For instance, mice are relatively affordable and easier to maintain but are resistant to TB and able to harbor large bacillary loads without showing clinical symptoms. 27 Our early understanding of tuberculosis was shaped by animal

The Discovery of Antibiotics by Alexander Fleming

3567 words - 15 pages , whooping cough, tuberculosis and pneumonia are among some of the other fatal bacterial diseases which would usually result in a fatality. Antibiotics decreased the mortality rates, and so new antibiotics were formed. At his Nobel Peace Prize speech in 1945, Alexander Fleming warned against the misuse of antibiotics and the fact that by doing this, one allows the bacteria to ‘become educated’ and therefore become resistant to the antibiotic. It

TB in India

5137 words - 21 pages have become negative). Outcome of MDR -TB in HIV is poor. A study from South Africa in 2003 has revealed 41% mortality among HIV-infected MDR-TB cases. In the New York study in 1996, the situation was no less different with 72% of MDR -TB cases with HIV dying during treatment. (Finlay et al 2004; Park et al 1996). Recently, strains of M. tuberculosis labelled as extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB have emerged and spread rapidly through HIV

use of isoniazid in treating tb

1737 words - 7 pages of thoracic surgery in treating TB disease is to remove a pocket of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium. Although surgery has a high success rate: a study showed a success rate of 84%, treatment failure 6% and a death rate of 3%34, there are many risks of complications which may include lung infections other than TB and death from major blood loss from conditions such as haemoptysis, which is the coughing up of blood. Prophylactic pyridoxine


1734 words - 7 pages contaminated body fluids. It also included the transfer of an infectious agent through a contaminated intermediate object such as contaminated instruments or hands of a health care worker, (Fundamentals of Nursing 7th Edition, Potter and Perry, 2009 pg. 662-663). This includes colonization or infection with multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO), such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

Winning The Battle Against HIV-1

3188 words - 13 pages resistant to an antiretroviral drug present multiple " point-mutations"(PM), which act in synergy to confer the resistant phenotype to that drug, and we may define these "point-mutations" (PM-x) as resistance-mutations-loci (RML-x) or resistance-mutations-sites (RMS-x), whereas their ensemble may be termed resistance-mutations-pattern (RMP-x).Multidrug resistant HIV-1 strains arise in patients treated with HAART-x or Mega-HAART-x, either through

Similar Essays

Multidrug Tb Essay

1256 words - 6 pages Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterium known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) is one of the most common infectious diseases in humans. Currently, this disease is becoming more serious because it is characterized by multi-drug resistant. In the case of multidrug resistant TB, it is very difficult to treat and has a high chance of treatment failure, leading to multidrug resistant bacteria to spread rapidly

Tuberculosis Essay

2336 words - 10 pages with pharmacological interventions. There are two categories that tuberculosis drugs are sorted into; first line and second line antibiotic agents (Furlow, 2010). First line medications that are used to treat latent TB are: isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, Ethambutol, and Streptomycin. First line antibiotic agents have been seen to be slowly losing their effectiveness and are becoming multidrug resistant to tuberculosis or MDRTB and

The Development Of The Tuberculosis Vaccine

2561 words - 10 pages Pieters J . Interaction of pathogenic mycobacteria with the host immune system. Curr Opin Microbiol 2006: 9 (1): 76–85. 5. Dalton T, Cegielski P and Akksilp S et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for resistance to second-line drugs in people with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in eight countries: A prospective cohort study. The Lancet 2012: 380 (9851): 1406–17. 6. Koch E. Local Microbiologies of Tuberculosis: Insights from the Republic of

Microbio Essay

1393 words - 6 pages currently being used. (1) Multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have arisen from the improper use of antimicrobial medication and the failure to implement effective control guidelines. About 3% of all patients diagnosed with tuberculosis have a completely drug-resistant strain. In order to combat the new drug resistant strains, researchers have begun to search for drugs that attack new mycobacterial targets. Bedaquiline is a