This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Multidrug Tb Essay

1256 words - 6 pages

Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterium known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) is one of the most common infectious diseases in humans. Currently, this disease is becoming more serious because it is characterized by multi-drug resistant. In the case of multidrug resistant TB, it is very difficult to treat and has a high chance of treatment failure, leading to multidrug resistant bacteria to spread rapidly. In addition, the alternative medicines for multidrug resistant bacteria still haven’t been found with cost- effectively or reasonably. While anti TB drugs are effectively but only focus on a few categories. However, patient who is infected to multidrug ...view middle of the document...

Among them, Isoniazid is known as a compound isonicotinylhydrazine resolution ( INH ) , it was discovered in 1912 but 40 years after they last used it for the treatment of tuberculosis . INH is as the first known drug in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis . However, if one uses isoniazid alone will not get high results because it vulnerable to TB bacteria resistant to quickly.

There are many causes of drug resistance TB bacteria but there are 3 main reasons:
- Drug or target genes was altered in the resistant strain is therefore drugs does not work anymore in killing bacteria .
- Products gene, but its activity is inhibited by drugs excess bacterial production .
- These changes occur at the molecular level and mechanism of drug penetration into the bacterial cell makes the drug concentration inside the cells reached a minimum concentration capable of killing bacteria .

Today the study of molecular biology have identified one mechanism of resistance to antibiotics related to the corresponding genes . For example : RMP resistance has been identified as related to mutations in the gene rpoB core region near the gene encoding the β - subunit of RNA polymerase subunit . SM resistance may be due to mutations in the rpsL gene . PZA resistance may be associated with pncA gene . Can quinolone resistance -related genes gyrA . INH resistance is believed to be primarily related to gene katG . Here we only focused on drug resistance due to mutations in the katG gene.
TB bacteria has its own characteristics :
TB bacteria of bacteria specially constructed by wax so their resistance is very strong with the external environment when the external environment . Even in a strong acid alcohol and certain other bacteria that kills the TB bacteria but still exists . So we call TB bacteria are resistant to alcohol- resistant bacterium box . In the body of the TB patients , TB bacteria are resistant to some drugs that doctors use to destroy them .
TB bacteria tend increasingly resistant to drugs used in treatment . The phenomenon of drug-resistant TB bacteria make treatment work faced many difficulties . Why drug-resistant TB bacteria ? This is a matter to be really interested in global health sector , there are many theories , but theories given by the mutation than convincing .

The phenomenon of bacterial drug resistance occurs due to a change in a natural way without the effects of anti-TB drugs . TB drugs only selective roles only, ie destroy drug resistant strains also , so drug resistant strains still exist and at the same time as the drug -resistant strains is increasing . The researchers suggest that the mechanism of drug-resistant TB is caused by bacteria in the range of genetic chromosomal mutation produced by bacteria resistant TB
drugs . This phenomenon occurs when the tuberculosis bacteria never once exposed to anti-TB drugs but right from the first contact they were resistant to that...

Find Another Essay On Multidrug TB

TB in India Essay

5137 words - 21 pages Management of multidrug resistance tuberculosis in the fi eld: Tuberculosis ResearchCentre experience; Indian J. Tuberc. 54 117-124Thomas B E, Ramachandran R, Anitha S, Swaminathan S 2007Feasibility of routine HIV testing among TB patients througha Voluntary, Counseling and Testing Centre (VCTC); Int. J.Tuberc. Lung Dis. 11 1296-1301WHO Smear Negative Algorithm 2006 Improving the diagnosisand treatment of smear-negative pulmonary and

Provesicular Dry Powder Formulations for Pulmonary Delivery of Anti-tubercular Drugs

1214 words - 5 pages subsequent relapse, anticipation of death and drug resistance, inhibition to transmission. The chemotherapy of TB includes the combination of drugs for a long period. Directly observed treatment (DOTS) comprises the 4 drugs i.e. rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Chemotherapy of tuberculosis is complex due to multidrug regimen that needs to be administered for long period of time making it more susceptible to incidence such as side

Tuberculosis: Recent Findings on Epidemiology & Pathology and their Implications for Treatment Management

1951 words - 8 pages epidemic was demonstrated in a study by Dalton et al. 33 which showed that among 1278 patients in 8 countries, nearly 50% were resistant to first-line drugs, 43% resistant to at least one second-line drug and 6.7% were extensively drug-resistant. Researchers have called for a focus on developing novel and multidrug regiments with different mechanisms of action to improve TB treatment. Global policy has been directed to the problem of MDR-TB, with the

use of isoniazid in treating tb

1737 words - 7 pages of thoracic surgery in treating TB disease is to remove a pocket of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium. Although surgery has a high success rate: a study showed a success rate of 84%, treatment failure 6% and a death rate of 3%34, there are many risks of complications which may include lung infections other than TB and death from major blood loss from conditions such as haemoptysis, which is the coughing up of blood. Prophylactic pyridoxine


2336 words - 10 pages with pharmacological interventions. There are two categories that tuberculosis drugs are sorted into; first line and second line antibiotic agents (Furlow, 2010). First line medications that are used to treat latent TB are: isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, Ethambutol, and Streptomycin. First line antibiotic agents have been seen to be slowly losing their effectiveness and are becoming multidrug resistant to tuberculosis or MDRTB and

The Rise of Antibiotic Resistant Diseases

1669 words - 7 pages requires patients to be monitored everyday to ensure the antibiotics are being taken. As the National Center for Biotechnology Information website explains, “An inadequate or poorly administered treatment regimen allows drug resistant mutants to become the dominant strain in a patient infected with TB” (Singh and Takkar ). The DOTS program not only successfully raises awareness of the multidrug resistant strains but also effectively treats them before


1393 words - 6 pages For many years, citizens of well-developed countries believed tuberculosis (TB) was an illness of the past. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that can be caused by various strains of mycobacterium, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a waxy coating on its cell surface that makes it highly resistant to Gram staining, and consequently must be identified using Acid-fast techniques. Despite its resistance


1734 words - 7 pages (varicella), shingles (disseminated and localized varicella zoster), TB (tuberculosis) 2) Droplet precautions focus on diseases that are transmitted by large droplets that are expelled into the air 3 to 6 feet, Fundamentals of Nursing 7th Edition, Potter and Perry, 2009). This includes diseases such as diphtheria, rubella, streptococcal pharyngitis, scarlet fever, and pertussis mumps. 3) Contact precautions focus on the care and handling of

Winning The Battle Against HIV-1

3188 words - 13 pages resistant to an antiretroviral drug present multiple " point-mutations"(PM), which act in synergy to confer the resistant phenotype to that drug, and we may define these "point-mutations" (PM-x) as resistance-mutations-loci (RML-x) or resistance-mutations-sites (RMS-x), whereas their ensemble may be termed resistance-mutations-pattern (RMP-x).Multidrug resistant HIV-1 strains arise in patients treated with HAART-x or Mega-HAART-x, either through

When the Bubble Burst

1539 words - 6 pages By the time I arrived state side from my second tour in the Middle East the housing bubble had already burst. I noticed a drastic change in the way that many of my friends and family were living. Several of my friends that worked in real estate had sold their boats and seconds houses. My own stock portfolio had lost a third of its value. My sister and her husband had defaulted on their home mortgage leaving them scrambling for a place to live. I

phase diagram

4456 words - 18 pages : Literature Values ΔHB (J/moles) 20880 ΔHA (J/moles) 19100 Xe 0.489 TB (Durene) 352 K TA Naphthalene 353.2 K Experimental Values ΔHB(J/moles) 21598.44 ΔHA (J/moles) 20570.54 Xe 0.492 TB (Durene) 352.4 K TA Naphthalene

Similar Essays

Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Essay

2298 words - 9 pages new vaccines and methods of treatment, in fact, there are more than a dozen candidates that have made it to human trials with positive outcomes (p. 61). Although TB may never be fully eradicated, there are many researchers working on the problem and many of whom are getting excellent results from new vaccine candidates. Multidrug-Resistant TB (Debate) “TB is predominantly a disease of poverty with over 80% of cases occurring in Asia or Africa

Tuberculosis Essay

1947 words - 8 pages national pool of immunocompromised individuals uniquely vulnerable to TB disease. In the midst of resurgence, there was a frightening subepidemic of multidrug-resistant TB, stemming largely from widespread noncompletion of treatment. Multidrug-resistant TB required a more complex, longer course of treatment and, in immunocompromised patients, led to extremely high fatality rates if not adequately treated. Many of these causative factors intersected

The Development Of The Tuberculosis Vaccine

2561 words - 10 pages . The short course treatment lasts about two months and then the long-term treatment with isoniazid or rifampin continues for four more months. Usually, a patient is considered TB free after six months of antibiotic therapy. In case of latent infection often only isoniazid is used for six to nine months. The biggest problem in treating TB with antibiotics is the development of multidrug resistance. Drug resistance can be of two types, primary and

Report On Tuberculosis

870 words - 3 pages tuberculosis bacilli. Some strains can be resistant to one or more drugs.WHO defines a multidrug resistance (MDR) strain as one that is at least resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin.Drug resistance is caused by inadequate treatment and poor tuberculosis programmes. The most common reasons for the development of resistance are:a) Incorrect prescriptionb) Irregular supply of drugsc) Noncompliance of treatmentd) Lack of supervision and follow upWHO in order