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Muscle Repair And Regeneration Essay

1585 words - 7 pages

Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles play a vital role in the everyday processes that allow the human body to function. Without these muscles, everyday tasks and functions could not be conducted. Injury to these muscles could cause serious problems, however, these muscles have the ability to regenerate, repair, and fix multiple problems all by themselves. Repair and regeneration of a muscle are two similar, yet different things. Repair restores muscle continuity so that it can continue to function in the same way as before injury, but does not completely restore the pre-injury structure like regeneration (PDF 1). Muscle repair and regeneration take place after an injury, after surgery, ...view middle of the document...

The main aspect of how well the damaged muscle will heal and how well it will function after damage, largely depends on how much damage occurred or how much healthy tissue remains.
After an injury in the skeletal muscle; like a contusion, strain, or laceration, there are three main phases that happen (PDF 2). The first phase involves inflammation and the formation of a haematoma. During this first phase, damaged cells are removed and growth factors activate satellite cells. The satellite cells aid in the second phase of the main repairing of the muscle. During this time, the satellite cells begin to distinguish into myoblasts which act as a glue to fuse the myofibers that have been injured and fill in the remaining gap left from the injury. After this, connective or scar tissue begins to develop. While this tissue formation helps give the muscle strength, it also can result in the incomplete recovery of the injured muscle. During the final healing phases, the fresh new myofibers get stronger and the muscle begins to function normally again. Complications, like nerve damage, can alter or even prohibit the repairing process. After an injury, like a heart attack, with the cardiac muscle, a similar process occurs. The damaged muscle is slowly replaced by tissue. The tissue then develops into fibrous scar and the cardiac muscle that had been damaged may return to normal, or may become an area of dead muscle, either way, the repaired muscle cannot contract and function like it had previous to injury (PDF 3). The cardiac muscles cannot return to complete functionality as previous to an injury due to the lack of certain cells, like satellite cells in skeletal muscle, without these cells, cardiac cells cannot be replaced. The function of the heart after damage to the cardiac muscle mostly depends on the health and strength of the remaining muscle that did not get damaged. After injury to smooth muscle, smooth muscle cells go through phenotypic changes. As in skeletal muscle repair, inflammatory cells gather around the injury site. Cells then produce multiple other cells that aid in removing damaged tissue and creating new tissue through proliferation (PDF 4). While the process or repair after an injury in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle is similar in some aspects, it is very different in other aspects as well, including rate and ability to return to normal functioning patterns.
When cells cannot be replaced, like in the cardiac muscle, or if there is too much damage, then undamaged muscle cells can hypertrophy to make up for the lack of cells in the damaged area. With hypertrophy, the cells become larger in size and volume in order to compensate for the cells that could not be replaced.
Surgery can place a great deal of stress on muscle tissues both during and after the procedure. In order to recover, the body has to create new tissue and new blood vessels in the damaged area so that the muscle can function properly again. In order for this to...

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