1.1 OVERVIEW OF THE TOPIC
Music is one of the greatest human creations (DeNora, 2000). It plays an integral role in human society worldwide irrelevant of race, gender, age, wealth or well-being (Kemper & Danhauer, 2005). Indeed according to Batt-Rawden (2010), playing different music in diverse situations can introduce listeners to the desired and relevant atmosphere. In most circumstances, music is played to entertain people, but it can also form part of an accompaniment in sad situations. Music is often the fulcrum that influences the listener by creating a unique ambience and atmosphere (Bernatzky, Presh, Anderson, & Panksepp, 2011). Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham, (2007) adds that music can be a medium to enhance communication, control emotions and has the power to affect personality. Researchers have been trying to investigate and further understand music in relation to human well-being for the scope of ameliorating it (Wakim, Smith, & Guinn, 2010). This is evident in the increase of available studies concerning the integration of music in the healthcare system during these past decades (Bernatzky, et al., 2011; Kemper & Danhauer; 2005, Evans, 2002; Good, 1996). Furthermore, its use and impact on the amelioration of human health in the areas of anxiety, pain, stress and others are still being explored (Pratt, 2004).
Indeed documentation regarding the positive impact on health through music is found prior to biblical times(Podolsky, 1934). Harvey, (1991) outlined that in 550BC, the Greek philosopher Pythagoras discovered that music healed the sick. In more recent history, Florence Nightingale believed that music influenced the healing process of the sick (Nightingale, 1992). She added that instruments that produce continuous sounds obtained a positive effect, while instruments with no continuity of sound like the pianoforte achieved the adverse effect. Music during surgery was first introduced in the early 20th century as a complementary therapy with anaesthesia (Light, Love, Benson, & Trier Morch, 1954). They argued that music distracted the patient from the fear of surgery and complemented analgesia effect with the use of nitrous oxide, which ultimately effected, the pain suffered by the patients..
Engwall (2009) defined pain as a "symptom and a warning that something is wrong in an organism” (p 370). Rathmell et al., (2006) maintained that fear of uncontrolled pain can be a traumatic situation for a patient undergoing surgery. Moreover, Pellino, et al (2005) sustained that “pain is a multidimensional experience, consisting of not only physical stimuli but also psychological interpretations of pain” (p. 182). Alleviating peri-operative pain is traditionally achieved with the use of pharmacological interventions. analgesia can incur undesirable side-effects like drowsiness, nausea and vomiting. Controlling the pain by complimenting analgesics with the use of non-pharmacological interventions, might ameliorate patients’ response to...