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Mussolini And Fascism Essay

1532 words - 6 pages

     Fascism is the philosophy that exercises a dictatorship through the use of violence. There are two main areas fascism deals with. An elitist approach that makes the peoples' will on a select group with a supreme leader who governs all. The other approach is the populist approach in which the government wishes to have all its people act out against the government's oppressors. (Baradat) Fascism came from the word fasces, a bundle of sticks that were bound to an ax, which was supposed to represent "civic unity and the authority of the Roman officials to punish wrongdoers," (www.funkandwagnall.com)
There were three main philosophers who helped to shape the fascist theory, George Sorel, Friedrich Nietzesche, and George Hegal. Sorel had the notion that societies became "decadent and disorganized" naturally. This leading to the use of violence to prevent a decay of nation of this kind. Nietzsche had the theory that two moral codes made up the community. Then there was the ruling class, who created the great empires of the past. Then there was the oppressed class that contributed to the community by bringing in religious ideas and views. This class was also known as the slave morality. Nietzsche also came up with the idea of the perfect man, "overman," who symbolized man at his peak in creativity and his highest intellectual range. The last influential philosopher was George Hegal and agreed with Sorel that war was a necessary thing that brought about unity to the state, while peace only gave way to a weak society.
Fascist thinking lives on the idea that the group is working for the benefit of the community. It wishes to organize the government in an attempt to gain power in the state. All the people of the state work for the state's gain and nothing more. The state also in turn should be there for the people if the need arises for things such as food, money, and shelter. (Baradat) Fascism emphasizes nationalism. (www.funkwagnalls.com)
"For Fascism, the growth of the empire is an essential manifestation of vitality." It is a governing system best suited for communities who are rising after many years of foreign servitude. (www.fordham.edu) Military conquest was seen as a way to solve the nation's economic problems. The Fascist male was thought to be a Darwinian and not humanitarian. He should be tough, masculine, and concerned with the moral heath of society, and not be soft or feminine. (www.funkandwagnalls.com)
This type of authoritarian political movement developed on Italy and other parts of Europe after 1919. There seemed to be a large change in politics and socialism that were brought about by the declining social, economic, and political conditions of the country. (Baradat) Benito Mussolini was at the time the answer to these problems with his fascist views. He had started out as a Marxist following his father but turned his sights on fascism around 1914....

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