Chapter four, or Personal, Legal, Ethical, and Organizational Issues of Information Systems, mainly touches on different information technologies and organizational issues.
There are many risks that are associated with information technologies, which "can be misused to invade users' privacy and commit computer crimes" (57). The first way privacy can be invaded is by using cookies, which "are small text files with a unique ID tag that are embedded in a Web browser and saved on the user's hard drive" (57). Cookies enable information about the user's computer and location, which someone can use this information to invade one's privacy. Another way to invade one's privacy is by a "software that secretly gathers information about users while they browse the Web," also known as spyware. It has the to ability to take over other computers, where the hacker can alter the computer settings (58). A third way to invade one's privacy is by phishing, which is when a legitimate source sends a fraudulent email. Another way is keyloggers, which "monitor and record keystrokes and can be software or hardware devices" (58). With keyloggers, you can collect one's data that they enter on the internet- such as a credit card number. Lastly sniffing and spoofing is a way to invade one's privacy. Sniffing is "capturing and recording network traffic" (58). Here a hacker can intercept one's information. On the other hand, spoofing is an "attempt to gain access to a network by posing as an authorized user to find sensitive information" (58). Here, a hacker can figure out one's credit card number, social security number, and password. Obviously, there are many privacy issues with information technologies, which we can see through identity theft, stealing files, email spamming, and computer fraud.
Not only having privacy issues, information technologies also have ethical issues. Information technologies offer so many opportunities to perform unethical behavior. An ethical topic is censorship. What information should be private or public? What should be censored and what shouldn't? There are two main categories pertaining to censorship: private and public. "Public information, posted by an organization or public agency, could be censored for public policy reasons, such as not publishing defense initiatives to prevent the information from falling into enemy hands" (64). Businesses need to be careful about what they publish because if it is not censored, another business could steal their idea. On the other hand, "private information - what's posted by a person - can't be subject to censorship because of freedom of expression" (64). Living in the United States, we have the ability to speak freely over the Internet; however, the information posted depends on if it violates any policies. If it does violate certain policies, the information could be "censored or denied access" (64). There are many issues pertaining to censorship since so much information is public on the...