6. Hume: all that we know come from our senses. If there is no experience of God, it does not exist. All our knowledge make of perceptions: a) impressions - immediate info that comes through senses (emotions, passions, inner feelings) a1) simple - what make you think (color, smell, taste); a2) complex - made up of simple impressions (snow) b) ideas - thinking about impressions, they are copies or fake images of impressions; b1) simple - produced by simple impressions; b2) complex - produced by simple ideas. Simple ideas are meaningless. Knowledge: 1) relation of ideas a formal truth independent of any experience (math, logic), it gives us absolute certainty, but tells nothing about the world; 2) maters of fact based on sense impressions which may be true of false, statement about the world but gives no absolute certainty because can be logically contradicted. No possibility of knowing of facts because laws may change (we fall on the ice not all the time). We don't see causing effect, only objects.
Knowledge of causes and effect gives us info about the means to obtain some end (health - end you want, exercise - means). Reason gives us info about the best means to some end but says nothing of the ends. Arguments against reason being the basis of morality: 1) moral convictions are practical providing an immediate motivation to action; 2) beliefs that come from reason are inert in themselves having no immediate bearing on actions; 3) passions/ desires have direct impact on action. Therefore moral convictions don't come from reason, but passions. We call things nice because they give us a nice feeling, pleasure.
7. Kant: "golden rule" is the logical rule to follow. K. want to develop morality that applies to all people at all times. Types of commands/ imperatives: 1) Hypothetical based or depend upon inclinations, desires , they are conditional a) rules of skill - can't be a moral law because it doesn't apply to all people, not all people want to be a nurse (it applies only "if you want to be ... than you have to follow these rule".) b) counsels of prudence, we seek for happiness, dif. things make people happy. 2) Moral Law - Categorical imperative, applies to all people. a) formula of Universal Law. Maxim - general rule which state what it is you think you're doing and your reasons for doing. It doesn't tell you what to do (tell the truth). b) formula of humanity - we are forced to treat people in certain way by laws or self choice. Mutual respect to others' lives- realm of ends where people make laws for themselves. c) formula of autonomy - always treat others as autonomous agents capable of self-directed rational action.
8. Mill: Hedonist - pleasure or relief from pain is the only possible object of our desires. Utilitarianism is a...