The nanotechnology has great potential to become the key technology in the coming decades. The nano-manipulation techniques or nanotech scale control and even atomic-molecular or be present in all fields of science and imply, according to experts, a revolution.
The future development of this technology, such as three-dimensional micromachining, microsensors, nanostructured materials and microelectromechanical systems, apply both to the computer, to the production of medicines or materials development tiniest ever day. In all the countries situated at the head of technological development, are becoming more and more relevant research of nanotechnology applied to various fields ...view middle of the document...
" Moore's second law, less known, is "the cost of manufacturing a chip doubles every year. " Reducing the size of the transistors need to use ever more perfect equipment. Today, building a chip factory building represents an investment of 800 million dollars and it is estimated that this figure will increase tenfold in the coming years.
Keep transistors based technology would mean bankruptcy for many chip makers because they could not bear the high costs. That's why they are investigating new systems within nanotechnology. Among the solutions that are currently being implemented is to substitute aluminum for copper in the conductors that connect the transistors. Copper is a better conductor than 40% aluminum and improves the speed of the processors. But it has other problems. Does not mix well with the silicon, the base of transistor material and also is capable of changing the electrical properties of the substrate.
To solve this problem, the company IBM was able to develop a method, which involves inserting a microscóspica barrier between copper and silicon, and that eliminates rejection. This system is allowing producing chips with 0.12 micron technology and the cost of processing is 20 to 30% lower than the aluminum-based chips.
In September 2001, announced that he had succeeded in uniting the gallium arsenide, more expensive but better conductor of electricity, with silicon. The phone company said the new semiconductor operates at a speed of 70 gigahertz, 35 times above current gigahertz faster processors in personal computers.
On Monday, 3, Intel introduced a new structure in Washington for transistors, which allow the chips run faster and consume less energy. They call it the Transistor TeraHertz because cycling on and off is a billion times per second.
In the not too distant future, PCs will consist, instead of transistors, other components such as molecules, neurons, bacteria or other methods of transmission. Among these projects is the future "chemical" technology, developed by scientists at Hewlett-Packard and the University of California (Los Angeles). Circuits of this new model are molecules, representing a transistor million times smaller than the current size.
The project will replace the silicon chip molecular and optical, in favor of chemistry, more manipulable. It is expected to be manufactured computers the size of a speck of dust and thousands of times more powerful than existing ones. So far, it has been possible to simulate the change of a molecule, through its breakage, but lack create molecules bend without breaking.
You also need to make other drivers, because existing not work. Experiments with carbon nanotubes (billionth of a meter) for conducting information between the molecules have already yielded results. IBM just announced that it has created a computer logic circuit with a carbon molecule, a structure shaped like a 100,000 times thinner than a hair cylinder. This project will introduce 10,000 transistors...