You’re walking along the sidewalk while it is raining. Suddenly, a rock smashes onto your phone and knocks it into a large puddle. After groping around for a while, you pick up the phone, completely unscathed from the water and rock. This is the power of nanotechnology. Not everyone knows what nanotechnology is. In order to get a basic understanding of what it is, it is necessary to know the general description of nanotechnology, how it is built, why the nanoscale is important, when it started, and how it can benefit society. Nanotechnology should be understood by everyone because it can truly improve the world.
Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale which has the dimensions of about 1-100 nanometers can be applied to microscopic things and used in diverse fields of science, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. The idea of nanotechnology first appeared at a talk entitled “There’s plenty of Room at the Bottom” by physicist Richard Feynman in an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology on December 29, 1959. However, it was not until a decade later that Professor Norio Taniguchi made the term nanotechnology even vaguely popular. Part of the reason people such as Taniguchi and Feynman are intrigued by nanotechnology, is due to its incredibly small size. Nanotechnology can stand at about one billionth of a meter, which is approximately as long as your fingernail grows in a second. Nanotechnology is clearly very small. Yet, depending on how we build at the nanoscale, could have a huge impact on how items are built.
There are different ways to build at the nanoscale, which can lead to making a variety of structures. The first way to build as the nanoscale is top-down. Top-down nanomanufacturing minimizes large pieces of items until they are at the nanoscale. Although this approach is easier, larger amounts of materials are required, and can lead to waste if the excess is scrapped. The second way to manufacture at the nanoscale is to do it bottom-up. This method of nanomanufacturing involves building products of from atomic and molecular-scale components, which consumes a large amount of time. In both ways of building at the nanoscale, various nanostructures are involved, such as the nanocone. The nanocone is a simple example of a carbon nanostructure. They are made of a hexagonal plane with a different number of pentagonal defects varying from one to five. An additional example of a nanostructure would be the nanotube. The nanotubes are tubes made from grapheme plain with one or more layers, and are for now the most studied nanostructures. Due to nanotechnology’s microscopic size, many structures that have never been made before are now possible.
At the nanoscale, many different things can happen to common objects that had never happened before. This is because, at the nanoscale, quantum effects overrule properties of materials....