Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Ajaccio, on the island of Corsica, on Aug. 15, 1769. It was by chance that the future ruler of France was born a French citizen. His family had migrated to Corsica from the Italian mainland in the 16th century. The island had been transferred from the Republic of Genoa to France one year before Napoleon's birth. His christening name was Italian. It was spelled Napoleone Buonaparte. As a boy he hated the French, whom he considered oppressors of his native land.
A History are two recent additions to the growing literature that testifies to this interest. Both books make fascinating reading. Laqueur's Fascism is a sweeping overview of the two paradigmatic cases of "historical fascism", fascist Italy and Nazi Germany; of movements that identify themselves as neo-fascist around Western Europe; of extreme Right movements and recent Right-Left "post-fascist" alliances in Russia and Eastern Europe; and of "clerical fascism"--Islamic fundamentalism in particular in the Third World. Orwell's Fascism tells the story of fascism in four countries: Italy, Germany, France, and Britain. It traces Italian fascism from its birth in the wake of the First World War to near-death experience in the Second World War to mature respectability today, and it follows Nazism and its posterity from Hitler's Munich days to post-reunification, French "Third Way" movements from Action franchise to Le Pen, and British "fascist" eccentrics on the "oneman-and-his-dog" fringe of British politics from Oswald Mosley in the 1930s to the present.
During Napoleon's rule between 1799 and 1815 the benefits did not outweighed the costs. Even though Napoleon temporarily ended the civil unrest caused by the Revolution he destroyed many of the Revolution's ideas and work. Also, his many military victories were not ultimately beneficial as it cost thousands of lives and dollars and Napoleon eventually lost control of the land he had captured.
From 1799 to 1815 Napoleon had led the French people to many great war victories. He defended France from the Austrian armies and led them to victories in Italy. By October 1797 all of Northern Italy was under French control. Later he defeated the Egyptians in the Battle of the Pyramids then defeated the Austrians in the Battle of Marengo. Soon after, Napoleon's army defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Hohenlinden in Germany; this brought the Second Coalition to an end, resulting in a peace treaty signed in Lunéville in 1801. This left France in control of Belgium, of German lands in on the river Khine and northern Italy. These victories were, however, short lived.
Napoleon had been victorious in 14 pitched battles and 70 combats. His army had conquered rich lands. These were forced to feed and to pay the French troops during the campaign. In addition millions of francs had been sent back to France to relieve the financial distress of the home government. The young general negotiated the treaty of Campo Formio with...