NWA, MBSs and Marine Wildlife Areas under the important birds Areas program (IBA) which protect the most critical for the world’s birds. In Canada, Canadian Nature Federation and Bird Studies Canada have worked on IBA program.
History of NWA-MBS Network:
The Migratory Birds Convention Act (MBCA), passed by the federal Parliament in 1916 authorized the federal government to designate MBSs with a goal of protecting migratory birds against physical disturbance and hunting –the main threats to bird populations at the time. Now, NWA-MBS network has expanded largely, but the network is still limit on funding to support low budget.
Before I started to explain my project, there are some key terms that address through my work, include National Wildlife Areas (NWAS), Migratory Bird Sanctuaries (MBSs) and Marine Wildlife Areas. Compare with national park, NWA and MBSs have played different roles in protect specific species.
National Wildlife Areas is conserve essential habitat for migratory birds and other wildlife. In NWAS, harmful actives are not allowed and land has controlled by federal government. In Canada, there are 49 sites which cover approximately 490000ha, include marine ecosystem, but it does not cover Newfoundland and Labrador and Prince Edward Island. The purpose of NWAs is to conservation, research and education while conserve essential habitat for migratory birds. NWAs are usually owned, can be lease over the long term by Environment Canada.
Migratory Bird Sanctuaries is protect migratory birds against physical disturbance and hunting, however, there are still many activities could affect migratory birds that allow in MBSs. MBSS is a mix of privately owned, provincial and territorial and deferral lands. Be able to protect birds in MBSs, regulations must pass through different stakeholders. Not like National Wildlife Areas, there are 94 MBSs sites cover 11, 000, 00 ha in Canada. The size of MBSs always big, but it does not include MB and YT. Mostly water and land are covered in MBSs and the purpose of MBSs is to provide safe place for birds. In MBSS, shorebirds, waterfowl and seabirds most often protected from hunting and other activities that distract birds breeding. MBS site management can include inspections and wildlife survey, enforcement of regulation and hunting, maintaining and educational facilities and undertaking habitat enhancement or research. MBS does not require the development of a site management plan, but it may require a plan on land claims. MBS sites views should be conducted every five years and the MBS could be delisting if site selection criteria are no longer met.
Marine Wildlife Areas is marine protection area (inland water and the territorial areas) that established by Environment Canada, however, there is no regulation and date that developed. Some of Canada’s marine environment is include within existing NWAS and MBSs. Thus, it is not significant area that applies on wildlife.