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Nature Vs. Nurture Essay

1389 words - 6 pages

There is a gift, something inborn, that separates those with simply just skill and those with exceptional talent. One of the popular debates concerning "nature vs. nurture" is that of which whether or not people are born with natural artistic talent or is it something that has to be developed. This paper will prove that exceptional talent that stands out from all others is that of which one is born with.
Nature vs. nurture has been discussed by philosophers in the past and by scientists most recently. Philosophers such as Plato argued that all knowledge was inherited through your parent and when you were told something you didn’t learn it you were just reminded of it. Aristotle however argued that all humans were born with a blank slate and built on it with influence from the environment. In the 1700’s the empiricists and the internalists took over the argument. They fought through letters explaining their point of views and denouncing the others. This leads to Pavlov coming up with the idea of behaviorism in the early 1900‘s. Behaviorism became the new wave of Psychology and influenced a lean towards the nurture side. It was not effectively argued against until 1928 when Watson published his book. This opened up the floodgates for environmental influences studies. Soon the idea of nurture was the popular excuse for behavior. Studies using animals were the most popular was in which scientists used to prove a theory, or disprove a theory.
The newest studies use human twins to prove nature vs. nurture. If genetics didn't play a part, then fraternal twins, raised under the same conditions, would be alike, regardless of differences in their genes. But, while studies show they do more closely look like each other than do non-twin brothers and sisters, they also show these same outstanding similarities when reared apart - as in similar studies done with identical twins. The article The Identity Dance tells a story about Sandra and Marisa Pena, 32 year-old identical twins, which seemed to be exactly the same. They live together work one floor away from each other at MTV, wear the same clothes, hang out with the same friends but so much different as a person. Sandra is outgoing and confident, Marisa is reserved. They also reacted differently to the sudden loss of their parents, Sandra moved on with her life, while Marisa stayed put, catatonic with her sadness.
A large number of the study of twins reared apart was undertaken by Thomas Bouchard of the University of Minnesota starting in 1979. He “collected” pairs of separated twins from all over the world and reunited them while testing their personalities and IQs. Other studies at the same time concentrated on comparing the IQs of adopted people with those of their adopted parents and their biological parents or their siblings. Put all these studies together, which include the IQ tests of tens of thousands of individuals, and the table looks like this:•Same person tested twice 87%•Identical twins reared...

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