Nature versus nurture has emerged as one of the most heated debates in the 21st century. It is more aligned towards the internal and external factors that comprise human beings behavior. The internal factors are innate and perceived to be genetically revolved as opposed to the external factors that are influenced by the environment and individuals’ experiences. However, scholars in different fields have researched on the relationship between nature and nurture without due success and this has created gaps for further research on this topic. This context will review academic sources to scrutinize their bone of contention on this matter as well as criticize them for their shortcomings in addressing this topic.
In Bryner Jeanna (2006) in her book, “Nature vs. Nurture: Mysteries of Individuality Unraveled” a publication by Live Science, critical questions arise to challenge if some occurrences are based on genetic inheritance or as a result of mere coincidence. Things like talent, intelligence and personality come to the forefront of their discussion as to weather they are inherited or acquired through environmental exposure and experience (Bryner). In her view, these questions have posed many challenges to philosophy, psychology and genetics.
In an effort to ascertain their claims, twin studies were used. The purpose of the study was to determine whether genes play a significant role in influencing some common behaviors such as addiction, violence and talent. In addition, the possibility of genes as contributing factors to diseases was also investigated. Through research, it was realized that smoking was influenced by a gene known as CYP2A6 which varied among individuals (Bryner). Along the same line of argument, alcoholism also emanates from genetic influences. Though this has a positive implication on nature, nurture could also worsen or reduce smoking and drinking capacity of an individual. Talent for instance in athletics, has a major bearing in genes but the environment plays an important role in promoting or discouraging it. It was found that, some people have genes that facilitate muscle contraction in motion (Bryner). The same was observed for risk predisposing factors for diseases. Genes expose individuals to higher risks of contracting some disease. A good example of such diseases is Alzheimer’s disease. In conclusion and with respect to Bryner’s (2006) article, talents, addiction and diseases among others do not entirely depend on genes rather on the environment. It is thus sufficient to assert that environmental factors enhance genes influence on behavior and diseases.
In Andrew (1998) in “Nature vs nurture: Are leaders born or made? A behavior genetic investigation of leadership style” a publication by the Australian Academic Press, leadership is inherited. Their focus was based on trait theories to explain leadership. A look at the personality of individuals and relying on the premise posed in this context, personality traits are...