a. It is advisable to use Link State Routing protocol when dealing with a big network of fifty (50) routers or more. Link state offers numerous advantages over its counterpart routing protocol as it has been modelled to overcome the shortcomings of the Distance-vector protocol.
• One of the modifications is that link-state multicasts routing updates to the network. By so doing, only routers that are affected by the change in the network topology will receive the update. It supports VLSM
• Convergence time of the network topology is reduced because of multicasting and flooding. Flooding is done only when there is a trigger in the network that will require an update to take ...view middle of the document...
Triggered updates reduce convergence time and allow the network to converge faster while periodic updates increase convergence time and the network takes a longer time to converge
• Due to the algorithm used for the Link State, the convergence time is much faster than in Distance Vector protocol. This is because each router computes its own cost to a particular destination. Distance Vector protocol the router does not have an entire view of the network, it relies on the distance of the destination network and direction of the packet to be forwarded
• Link State protocol only multicasts updates to the affected routers while the Distance Vector protocol broadcasts all updates within the network domain
b. Routing Information Protocol does not support VLSM. Instead it supports Classful Routing whereby the subnet mask is not included in the routing updates. This is because the mask can easily be identified by the number in the first octet of the IP address. For example an IP address of 10.0.0.1 can be easily identified as a Class A address because of the number 10 in the first octet that is used by Class A for private address.
To rectify this problem RIPv2 can be used. RIPv2 supports VLSM therefore subnets will be advertised in the routing updates and the routing table. Unlike RIPv1, version two multicasts update information instead of sending out broadcasts .RIPv2 is still suitable for a small network with only a few changes in the configurations. A few new commands are introduced to cater for VLSM; inclusion of the subnetted network address, disabled automatic summarization and static redistribution. The commands are as follows:
Router (config) # config t
Router (config) # router rip
Router (config) # version 2
Router (config) # network 10.0.0.0
Router (config) # network 172.16.0.0
Router (config) #passive-interface default
Router (config) #passive-interface s0/0/0
Router (config) # no auto-summary
Router (config) # redistribute static
Router (config) #end
a. VLAN – a virtual LAN is a switched network that is a logically segmented network. Inter- VLAN communication takes place in machines that are within a single broadcast domain. The broadcast domain could be located anywhere within a building, it could be in different floors and the machines will still communicate with each other. The machines are not required to be in a single physical location. The broadcast domain machines need to share a similar subnet mask or be in the same subnet for communication to take place. The host computers are configured with an IP address and VLAN ID configurations. The VLAN ID sets the host computer to belong to that VLAN and therefore receive and send data within it. The default VLAN for all devices is VLAN 1. Different VLANs must be created apart from the default one. VLAN membership at the access layer can be achieved in to ways;
• Static-automatic VLAN connection when connected to particular port using port based membership. Manually...