from node to node, with each node handling every message.
Because a ring topology provides only one pathway between any two nodes, ring networks may be disrupted by the failure of a single link. A node failure or cable break might isolate every node attached to the ring. FDDI networks overcome this vulnerability by sending data on a clockwise and a counterclockwise ring: in the event of a break data is wrapped back onto the complementary ring before it reaches the end of the cable, maintaining a path to every node along the resulting "C-Ring". 802.5 networks -- also known as IBM Token Ring networks -- avoid the weakness of a ring topology altogether: they actually use a star topology at the physical layer and an MAU to imitate a ring at the datalink layer.
A bus network Topology is a network architecture in which a set of clients are connected via a shared communications line, called a bus. There are several common instances of the bus architecture, including one in the motherboard of most computers, and those in some versions of Ethernet networks.
Bus networks are the simplest way to connect multiple clients, but often have problems when two clients want to transmit at the same time on the same bus. Thus systems which use bus network architectures normally have some scheme of collision handling or collision avoidance for communication on the bus, quite often using Carrier Sense Multiple Access or the presence of a bus master which controls access to the shared bus resource.
A true bus network is passive the computers on the bus simply listen for a signal; they are not responsible for moving the signal along. However, many active architectures can also be described as a "bus", as they provide the same logical functions as a passive bus; for example, switched Ethernet can still be regarded as a logical bus network, if not a physical one. Indeed, the hardware may be abstracted away completely in the case of a software bus.
With the dominance of switched Ethernet over passive Ethernet, passive bus networks are uncommon in wired networks. However, almost all current wireless networks can be viewed as examples of passive bus networks, with radio propagation serving as the shared passive medium.
AdvantagesEasy to implement and extendRequires less cable length than a star topologyWell suited for temporary or small networks not requiring high speeds(quick setup)Cheaper than other topologiesDisadvantagesDifficult to administer/troubleshoot.
Limited cable length and number of stations.
If there is a problem with the cable, the entire network goes down.
Maintenance costs may be higher in the long run.
Performance degrades as additional computers are added or on heavy traffic.
Proper termination is required.(loop must be in closed path).
If many computers are attached, the amount of data flowing causes the network to slow down.
Significant Capacitive Load (each bus transaction must be able to stretch to most distant link).
Mesh networking is a...