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Neurologial Disorders: Epileptic Seizure Essay

1312 words - 6 pages

EPILEPSY
INTRODUCTION
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and uncertain intrusions of normal brain function, called epileptic seizure (Fisher et al., 2005). The word epilepsy was derived from the Greek word “attack”. The primitive Greeks thought epilepsy was contagious, and hence people with epilepsy used to live alone (Dam, 2003). It is one of the oldest conditions known to humankind (WHO, 2001a) and still the most common neurological condition affecting individuals of all ages. At any given time, it is appraise that 50 million individuals worldwide have a detection of epilepsy (WHO, 2001b). Epilepsy is charaterised by the incident of at least two unprovoked ...view middle of the document...

Acquired epilepsy is epileptic seizures as a result of one or more perceptible structural abrasions of the brain. Cryptogenic epilepsy refer to the epilepsy that is believed to be indicative, with anonymous cause (Engel, 2001; Epilepsia, 1989).In 400 B.C, the early physician, Hippocrates, labeled epilepsy as the agitated disease resulting from a brain disorder that is caused by cold, sun and the changing uneasiness of winds (Zeman, 2008).
Examination is usually significant. Check for any neurological or cerebrovascular signs. Skin examination may divulge.There may be a clear instigating cause, eg insufficient sleep, alcohol abuse or medications such as tricyclic antidepressants, which lower the seizure inception.
Feasible seizure associated symptoms include:
Sudden falls, spontaneous jerky movements of limbs while awake, loss of consciousness, exotic indulgence of urine with loss of consciouness, or in sleep, strange events happening in sleep, eg fall from bed, twitchy movements, automatisms, occurrence of confused behaviour with diminish awareness, possible simple partial seizures, epigastric fullness sensation, suspicion,fear, exhilaration, depression,modification, incompitence to understand or express language (written or spoken),loss of memory, aromatic, visual, auditory hallucinations, focal motor or positive symptoms (jerking, itching) (Crawford, 2009).
Blood tests, an electroencephalogram (EEG) and scans are used to assemble information for a diagnosis. Tests on their own cannot assert or dismiss epilepsy. An EEG (Electroencephalogram) is one of the test used to help detect epilepsy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the imaging exploration of choice. Computerized Axial Tomography (CT or CAT) possibly used to determine whether a seizure has been caused by a severe neurological abrasion or illness. Suitable blood tests (eg glucose, calcium, electrolytes, liver function, renal function and urine biochemistry) to identify potential causes. (Epilepsy, NICE Clinical Guideline (January 2012).
According to one theory, epilepsy is caused by an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. If the inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain are not active adequate, or if the excitatory ones are too active, then it’s more likely to have seizures. Many of the new medicines being developed to treat epilepsy try to influence these neurotransmitters, by increasing inhibitory and reducing excitatory neurotransmitter’s activities. (Steinlein, O. K. & Noebels, J. L., 2000). Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the two neurotransmitters that have been achieved broadly in relation to epilepsy. Both glutamatergic and GABAergic system play critical roles in epileptic event. It has been deliberated that the neuronal hyperexcitability in epilepsy is due to disparity between glutamate-mediated excitation and GABA-mediated inhibition (Aroniadou-Anderjaska et al., 2008). Glutamate is a main excitatory neurotransmitter in brain that is...

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