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New Energy Trade Trends – Lng Sea Carriers

1131 words - 5 pages

New energy trade trends - LNG sea carriersWhat is LNG?Liquefied natural gas is natural gas that has been cooled to the point that it condenses to a liquid, which occurs at a temperature of approximately -161°C at atmospheric pressure. Liquefaction reduces the volume of gas by approximately 600 times thus making it more economical to store natural gas where other forms of storage do not exist, and to transport gas over long distances for which pipelines are too expensive or for which other constraints exist. Liquefaction makes it possible to move natural gas between continents in specially designed ships. Thus, LNG technology makes natural gas available throughout the world.Definition and types of liquefied gasA liquefied gas has a gaseous forma t normal ambient temperature and pressure, but is liquefied by pressurisation or refrigeration, or by a combination of both. Most liquefied gases are hydrocarbons and flammable in nature. The main groups of gas cargoes are LNG, LPG ( Liquefied Petrol Gas) and a variety of petrochemical gases. LNG contains mostly methane naturally occurring in association with oil fields, whereas LPG contains the heavier gas types butane and/ or propane. LPG is for example used as a bottled cooking gas. This liqued form of the gas let people use in their homes for cooking and heating. Natural gas is also used as fuel for generating electricity. Natural gas and its components are used as raw material to manufacture a wide variety of products, from fibers for clothing, to plastics for healthcare, computing, and furnishings. LNG is not the same as Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). CNG is natural gas that is pressurized and stored in welding bottle-like tanks. CNG is often used as a vehicle transportation fuel and is delivered to an engine as low-pressure vapor.LNG is always carried cold at atmospheric pressure, i.e. in its liquefied form at its boiling point of as low as -163°C. As previously mentioned, in its liquied form, natural gas reduces its volume by 600 times and has a density of approx. 450kg/m3. All liquefied gases carried in bulk must be carried on a gas carrier in accordance with the Gas code rules of IMO (International Maritime Organisation).Types of LNG carriers and their containment systemsThe gas tankers are constructed according to the double-hull concept, including the bottom areas as a protection against ship grounding incidents.Furthermore, the gas must be carried according to the so-called "cargo containment system" principle, i.e. the cargo tanks are installed separately in the ship's holds, and are not a part of the ship's structure.The gas tanks used today in LNG carriers are normally of the spherical ( Moss) type, introduced in 1971, and membrane type, introduced in 1969, and in some few cases of the structural prismatic design. The spherical tanks and tanks of the structural prismatic design are self- supporting and are tied to the main hull structure.Today, membrane tanks are mostly being ordered...

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