Morality, the topic at focus, is the vertebral column of the first aphorism of the section “ Those Who “Improve” Humanity”, in Friedrich Nietzsche’s book, “Twilight of the Idols”. In an attempt too explain what it entails, the text is to be split down into five divisions. The first section extends from line 1 unto line 4, the second; lines 4-7, the third; lines 7-11, the fourth; lines 11-12 and finally the fifth proceeds up until line 17.
The first section, embraces Nietzsche’s estimation of the qualities and the worth of philosophers. He opines, that “they place themselves beyond good and evil”, concerned with the principles of right and wrong behavior; that is morality. The reason for so doing, according to him, is for philosophers to be able to make considered decisions, which he classifies as an “illusion”. Nietzsche then states the etiology for his claim; it originates from his intuition that “there are no moral facts at all”.
In the second section, he provides the readers with a comparative statement, in which he points out the resemblance between moral and religious judgments. Both, he states, confide in “realities” that are imaginary. To Nietzsche, moralities are not absolute. He regards a morality as an “interpretation” or rather a “misinterpretation” of phenomena, which are perceptions that the senses or the mind notices.
Once again, an analogy between moral and religious judgments resides in his writing. In the third section of my division of the aphorism, Nietzsche supplements his conviction through comparing moral judgments with religious ones. A dearth of awareness converges them. They share the state of negligence of exactness, actuality and accuracy, which he refers to as “the distinction between real and imaginary”. This distinction is not yet present, which consequently causes the faculties of imagining things, i.e. fantasies, to be denoted as “truth”.
In the fourth section, Nietzsche reaches a conclusion as a result of the aforementioned conviction of his. In conformity with his firmly held belief, “moral judgments” should never be contemplated in a literal manner. The reason thereof is, that they contain “nothing but nonsense” at all times.
The closing section, introduces a different viewpoint of Nietzsche’s. In concession, he states that moral judgments are “semiotically invaluable”, which means that the way moral judgments function and the manner, in which they have come to signify what they do, is extremely useful. According to him, moral judgments, serve as a divulgence of precious and beneficial realities of “cultures and inner states”. He holds this statement as true, exclusively to those who are knowledgeable. He describes the “inner states” as those who do not have sufficient knowledge to comprehend themselves. Nietzsche further elaborates what morality is by providing an additional definition for the word. It is a “sign language”, he suggests. It is a sign for the existence of something, which would only be...