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Nobel Prize In Chemistry 2013 Essay

1020 words - 5 pages

The Nobel Prizes were established when Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament on 27 November 1895, this gave the largest share of his fortune to create a series of prizes for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace. The Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden's central bank) established The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in 1968, the prize in memory of Alfred Nobel. The most common fields for Chemistry Laureates it is biochemistry. “The word "Laureate" refers to being signified by the laurel wreath. In Greek mythology, the god Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head. A laureal wreath is a circular crown made of branches and leaves of the ...view middle of the document...

At the same time, Dr. Karplus’s research at Harvard was looking at the microscopic level of physical reactions, while utilizing quantum physics with computer programs that simulated chemical reactions. Dr. Warshel joined Dr. Karplus’s laboratory after completing his doctorate. While working with Dr. Karplus, they began looking at the possibility of considering both classic Newtonian physics and quantum physics to describe the chemical behavior of certain molecules. In 1972 they published a paper based on Dr. Warshel’s inter- and intramolecular background and Karplus’ quantum chemical experience. They used this approach to study chromophores within molecules, which are responsible for transmitting or reflecting color and light. A common example is retinal used for vision in animals, where the chromosphore is used in the eye to detect light. Karplus and Warshel developed a computer program to model the classic and quantum chemical approach. This approach yielded excellent results, once these two models were corrected for nearest overlap. Prior to this research, scientists would have to choose between computer models based classical or quantum physics to simulate complex chemical reactions.(3) This laid the ground work of other computer modeling software to connect these two perspectives, leading to more accurate projections and a deeper understanding of what takes place during a chemical reaction.
This demonstrated the possibility of a combined method, but this first method was limited to planar systems where symmetry separated molecules naturally. “Then Arieh Warshel and Michael Levitt showed that it is possible to construct a general scheme for a partitioning between electrons that are included in the classical modeling and electrons that are explicitly described by a quantum chemical model. This was made in their study of the “Dielectric, Electrostatic and Steric Stabilisation of the Carbonium Ion in the Reaction of Lysosyme”(1).
Through decades of research and development of their computer modeling programs the Laureattes tackled enzymes and learned more about their function. With today’s powerful computers, chemists are finding that their computer is an equally important tool as...

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