Comm 1312: Writing and Research
Assignment 3: Literature Review
Communication is a huge need for people.People communicate with others to live, learn
and experience life. Communication is divided in to two sections verbal communication and
nonverbal communication. Verbal communication is based on using words and sounds to
communicate. In the other hand nonverbal communication is sending visible massages without
sounds to people. The massages contain feelings and thoughts and people show them by their
postures or gestures.
This literature review will written with the questions theme. This paper will addressee the
meaning of nonverbal communication and what is it? and will focus on how much of
communication is nonverbal. The review will answer why do people use nonverbal
communication ? and then how can humans read nonverbal communication?.
What is nonverbal communication?
This book (A. Pease, & B. Pease,2004) says that ’’Most researchers now agree that words are
used for conveying information, while body language is used for negotiating’’.Non verbal
communication shows the condition of the mind. A hand movement could reveal the real feeling
or thoughts in the brain. For example a woman who is conscious of her belly fat may smooth her
dress down a lot.
Similarly in (T. Gamble,& M.Gamble,2013) says nonverbal communication ‘‘it is an
actions humans do including their appearance,use of objects,sound,time,smell and space ’’.
Nonverbal communication reveals a person state of mind and the real feeling without being
aware or having a conscious control over it such as facial expressions, eye movement, gestures.
By non verbal communication people can change the meaning or the understanding of the verbal
massages. For example winking at the end of the words .
The same in (Butland,2012) ‘‘nonverbal communication is a complex system of
behaviors and meanings’’. Also nonverbal communication is any communication without the use
of words spoken or written. Nonverbal communication is the way people move , the tone of their
voice, the eye movement, the space between people and the way they dress.
How much of communication is nonverbal?
According to (A. Pease, & B. Pease,2004) book they talk about nonverbal
communication and how much is it from communication in general. A body language researcher
Albert Mehrabian in the 1950s found out that people use vocal massages 38% in the same time
they use 55% nonverbal. Like Mehrabian found out in 1970s-1980s that in a conversation face to
face less than 35% is verbal and more than 65% is non verbal.
In the book (J. Navarro, &M. Kartins, 2008) they say non verbal communication is
approximately 60% to 65% of communication and it includes touching, posture,...