From around the time during the Lower Paleolithic Era, which was about 1.8 million years ago, into the Upper Paleolithic Era, or 20,000 years ago, Europe was sparsely populated by Homo Erectus and Homo Neanderthalensis. The ancient ancestors of modern humans. They were a hunter-gather types of people that were eventually replaced by Homo Sapiens Sapiens, modern humans.
Survival was hard and basic survival techniques limited in an ever changing and unpredictable climate. The general practice was to hunt and find whatever it was you could eat. Hunting megafauna animals was the most practiced means by groups that were able to survive. To hunt these large animals, they had to develop ways to take them down, such as spears and javelins. Archeologists have found 380,000 year old wooden javelins in the Nordic Stone Age area. These javelins are the oldest complete hunting weapons ever found anywhere in the world and they were discovered in Schoningen, Germany.i
During the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic Era, from about 43,000 to 6,000 years ago, Europe's Homo sapiens hunter-gatherer populations began to increase. During the last glacial maximum (Ice Age), much of Europe was depopulated and then re-settled agaiun about 15,000 years ago.
During this period, groups had migrated long distances, following the edge of the glacial ice in search of food, mostly hunting seals. Some groups following seals and other marine food stuffs, made it all the Way to North America.
Several dozen European-style stone tools, dating back between 19,000 and 26,000 years, have been discovered at six locations along the U. S. East Coast. What’s more, chemical analysis carried out on a 19,000 year old stone knife found in Virginia, USA revealed that it was made of French-originating flint. That's a long distance for Stone Age peoples to travel, but it was necessary for their survival as they followed the food they hunted.
As glacial ice receded and the climate warmed up, the fauna changed as some animals began to become more scarce, such as fewer mammoth herds for example. The warmer climate brought new sources of meat that had became more readily available over time. Reindeer became a main source of hide, bone, antler, and of course meat.
During this time of the Nordic Stone Age was when the Norse people lived as nomadic reindeer hunters. From 13500 BC to 11000 BC, a time period during the Nordic Stone Age called the Hamburg Culture, which is classified by shouldered spear and arrow points dating to the period and zinken tools they used as chisels when working with horns. Also specific to the culture were tanged Havelte-type points found which are described as being unique to the Hamburg Culture exclusively.
Hamburg Culture Arrow Head.ii
Rock circles were also found in small settlements that are attributed to being used as weights to hold down the coverings of teepees. Teepees were used by primitive Nordic people just like the Great Plains Indians and Saami...