Natural Language Processing Essay

1926 words - 8 pages

There have been high hopes for Natural Language Processing. Natural Language Processing, also known
simply as NLP, is part of the broader field of Artificial Intelligence, the effort towards making machines think.
Computers may appear intelligent as they crunch numbers and process information with blazing speed. In truth,
computers are nothing but dumb slaves who only understand on or off and are limited to exact instructions. But
since the invention of the computer, scientists have been attempting to make computers not only appear intelligent
but be intelligent. A truly intelligent computer would not be limited to rigid computer language commands, but
instead be able to process and understand the English language. This is the concept behind Natural Language
Processing.

        The phases a message would go through during NLP would consist of message, syntax, semantics,
pragmatics, and intended meaning. (M. A. Fischer, 1987) Syntax is the grammatical structure. Semantics is the
literal meaning. Pragmatics is world knowledge, knowledge of the context, and a model of the sender. When
syntax, semantics, and pragmatics are applied, accurate Natural Language Processing will exist.

        Alan Turing predicted of NLP in 1950 (Daniel Crevier, 1994, page 9):

        'I believe that in about fifty years' time it will be possible to program computers .... to
make them play the imitation game so well that an average interrogator will not have more than
70 per cent chance of making the right identification after five minutes of questioning.'

        But in 1950, the current computer technology was limited. Because of these limitations, NLP programs of
that day focused on exploiting the strengths the computers did have. For example, a program called SYNTHEX
tried to determine the meaning of sentences by looking up each word in its encyclopedia. Another early approach
was Noam Chomsky's at MIT. He believed that language could be analyzed without any reference to semantics or
pragmatics, just by simply looking at the syntax. Both of these techniques did not work. Scientists realized that
their Artificial Intelligence programs did not think like people do and since people are much more intelligent than
those programs they decided to make their programs think more closely like a person would. So in the late 1950s,
scientists shifted from trying to exploit the capabilities of computers to trying to emulate the human brain. (Daniel
Crevier, 1994)

        Ross Quillian at Carnegie Mellon wanted to try to program the associative aspects of human memory to
create better NLP programs. (Daniel Crevier, 1994) Quillian's idea was to determine the meaning of a word by the
words around it. For example, look at these sentences:
After the strike, the president sent him away.
After the strike, the umpire sent him away.
Even though these sentences are the same except for one word, they have very different meaning because of the
meaning of the...

Find Another Essay On Natural Language Processing

The Challenge of a Computer Representation of Sign Language: Capturing a “Visual-Spatial” Language Electronically

1598 words - 6 pages , Workshop on Natural Language Processing of Minority Languages and Small Languages, Batz-sur-Mer. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2006, from http://www.sciences.univ-nantes.fr/info/recherche/ taln2003/articles/rocha.pdf. Costa, A.C.R.; Dimuro, G.P. & Freitas, J.B. (2004). A Sign Matching Technique to Support Searches in Sign Language Texts. In: Streiter, O. (Ed.) Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: From SignWriting to Image

SAT-Level Sentence-Completion Questions Essay

1248 words - 5 pages \textbf { Sentence Completion using Natural Language Processing Techniques} The primary goal of this project is to automatically answer SAT/GRE style sentence completion questions. For this we have to build a model that will deal with semantic coherence on a sentence level. Initially, we start out by applying Natural Language Processing Techniques on simple sentences. Later, we will see how these Natural Language Processing Techniques scale

The Left Brain vs. The Right Brain: How Does This Impact Learning;

990 words - 4 pages has left these people with two separate minds. That is, two separate spheres of consciousness” (Morris, 2006, par.16). Some of his results have shown that the right hemisphere of the brain controls reading faces, understanding metaphors, expressing emotions and copying of designs. The left side only resulted in language skills, skilled movement, and analytical time sequence processing (Morris, 2006). Coupled with split-brain research

Machine Translation

2145 words - 9 pages natural language processing, with a primary focus on high-quality multi-lingual machine translation. Several important projects are Pangloss and DIPLOMAT projects. USC/ISI (University of Southern California / Information Sciences Institute) [5] The Natural Language project at USC/ISI includes work on single-sentence realization, multi-sentence text and sentence planning for descriptions and explanations, parsing and semantic analysis, the semi

The Biological Basis of Language Development

4019 words - 16 pages acquisition of language seems to be related to "complex sequential processing, and the ability to form concepts and to classify a single stimulus in a multiple manner" (Joseph 178). Antione Danchin suggests that the knowledge we create through language allows us distinguish ourselves from the rest of the world to produce models of reality, which become more and more adequate due to the "self-referent loop" which enables us to understand ourselves

Mechanisms That Give Rise To Rise To Absolute and Relative Pitch Perception

1241 words - 5 pages pitch processing biases are experience-dependent and would also suggest that the faculty for relative pitch processing, a facet of language and music processing, may be latent in a wider range of species. These results would inform debates about the evolutionary basis of pitch perception by providing data outlining the relative contribution of genetics and experience. Such experiments will also provide a framework for physiological investigation of

Which Factors Determine the Differences between Adults' and Children' s Ability to Learn a Second Language?

2244 words - 9 pages known as localization and lateralization. For example, according to Sternberg (2000), the prefrontal cortex is used for problem solving, emotion and general thought while the auditory cortex is for detecting sound quality.The language processing has long been known as being taken over by the left hemisphere, in which the two most important language association cortices are situated: the Broca's area and the Wernicke's area. "The brain uses the

Language Acquisition

1779 words - 7 pages , with the left hemisphere prevailing, the existence of LAD could be situated somewhere in this region. It is in this area that the Broca’ area and Wernicke’s area also exists. These areas are linked to language processing, including speech and understanding. This is further supported in aphasia patients who have severely damaged their left hemisphere are therefore not able to make the utmost use of language. However this could again be contradicted

Translation Using Automated and Computerized Means

2392 words - 10 pages combined to form new word based on the previously identified sentence structure and tenses. Since Hindi language follows gender matching rule, for English to Hindi translation an extra gender processing step is used which add post position based on the gender of next word. Disambiguation\cite{r12} is an open problem of natural language processing, which governs the process of identifying which sense of a word or preposition which is used in

Database Management System Diagram

592 words - 3 pages natural language. Besides that, the differences between data and information as follow: Database deal with structured information retrieval through well-defined formal languages for representation and manipulation based on the theoretically founded data models. Efficient algorithms have been developed for operators that allow rapid execution of complex queries. IR, on the other hand, deals with unstructured search with possibly vague

Mini Paper

952 words - 4 pages collocations in classroom. Effect of L1 in processing L2 lexicon at the advanced levels of proficiency Comprehension depends mainly on the lexical information not only because of the semantic input lexical items provide, but also because lexical information helps to determine syntactic relationships. In several studies reviewed by Singleton (1999) the connectivity between L1 and L2 lexicon is supported. At the same time, second language learners

Similar Essays

Research Methodology On Natural Language Processing

2052 words - 8 pages Research methodology on Natural Language Processing: The main aim of this project is to research on the integration of “Natural Language Processing “ and information systems engineering to enhance query retrieval in natural language processing. Defining a research methodology: The definition of research methodology includes two parts: - Research definition - Methodology Research: It is defined as a thorough and organized query or

Auditory Processing Essay

2275 words - 10 pages Language and Learning Problem—Introduction Auditory processing is the process of taking in sound through the ear and having it travel to the language portion of the brain to be interpreted. In simpler terms, “What the brain does with what the ear hears”(Katz and Wilde, 1994). Problems with auditory processing can affect a student’s ability to develop language skills and communicate effectively. “If the sounds of speech are not delivered to the

Compiler Essay

4117 words - 16 pages Compiler Compiler, in computer science, computer program that translates source code, instructions in a program written by a software engineer, into object code, those same instructions written in a language the computer's central processing unit (CPU) can read and interpret. Software engineers write source code using high level programming languages that people can understand. Computers cannot directly execute source code, but need a

Language Acquisition: Understanding Language And Its Ontogenetic And Phylogenetic Aspects

3807 words - 15 pages with the neonativists. Many psycholinguists put stock in theories that language is acquired through domain-general mechanisms. Instead of being born with innate knowledge of how language is structured, rather humans are born with “architectural constrains–information-processing limitations or biases in the brain–that require specific experiences for their expression” (Bjorklund & Pellegrini, 2002. p.183). Essentially this view requires that the