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Notes From Business Data Communication Class, Local Area Network Technology. (Download It Is Set Up In A Table)

2902 words - 12 pages

CHAPTER 5OTHER LAN TECHOLOGIESLarge Ethernet networks, including:Hierarchical switch organization to reduce cost,Single points of failure,Workgroup versus core switchesVirtual local area networks and Ethernet physical layer standards.Wireless LANs Including:802.11 speeds802.11 access points and hand-offs,CSMA/CA + ACK,Bluetooth master/slave operationSpread spectrum transmissions (box features)ATM LANs Including:Quality of service (QoS) guarantees for voice and video (but not necessarily for data)ATM preparation using meshes and virtual circuits to reduces switching costsComparisons between ATM and Ethernet in handling brief traffic peaksLegacy LANs Including:token -ring networks and early Ethernet standardsLARGER ETHERNET NETWORKSIn a hierarchy There is only on possible path between any two stationEthernet Requires hierarchical arrangement for its switchesLOW-COST SWITCHING Advantage.Ethernet switches only have to do simple table lookups when a frame arrivesSimple table lookups are very fastMaking Ethernet switches very inexpensive for the traffic load they handleNote: routers have to do more workbecause there are alternative routes between any two stationsMust identify all possible routesThen select the best routeWORKGROP VERSUS CORE SWITCHESWorkgroup switches Connect stations directly to switchesCarry traffic to and from their stations (previous chapter)Dominant port speed10/100MbpsCore switches Are switches farther up the hierarchyThey carry traffic between one switch and anotherThey must work faster than workgroup switchesHave to handle traffic of many workgroup switchesEmerging dominant port speed1Gbps10GbpsVIRTUAL LANs AND ETHERNET SWITCHESUnicasting Ethernet NICs normally wish to unicastSend a from a from one station to one other stationBroadcast Send message to all stationsNovel Netware servers may advertise there presence every 60 seconds for so by broadcasting a server advertisement message that is designed to go to all to the stationsThe station that wishes to broadcast sets the frames destination MAC address to 48 onesWhen an Ethernet sees this address it broadcasts the frame out all ports like a hub.All NIcs process frames addressed as all ones as if the was their own addressCongestionBroadcasting is fine in small networksBroadcasting in large networks causes congestionsVirtual LANMost Ethernet switches allow stations to be grouped into sub collections of servers and the clients they serve called virtual LANs (multicasting)Multicasting Means sending to multiple stationsBut not to all stationsReduces congestion compared to broadcastingConnecting VLANs VLAN to VLANSome Ethernet switch vendors allow stations to be members of multiple VLANs.Or routers can be used to connect VLANStandardizing VLANSRecently There was no standard for VLAnsYou had to buy all of your Ethernet switches fro the sane vendorThe 802.1Q standardAllows switches from different Vendors to interoperate Is extending the Ethernet MAC layer frame to include two optional...

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