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Notes On Latin American Independence, 19th Century Nationalism, And Industrial Revolution (G.H 3)

1288 words - 5 pages

Latin American Independence*Inspired by Enlightenment ideals, the people of Latin America rebelled against Spanish & Portuguese rule in the early 19th century. Rebels in the Spanish colonies waged a series of hand-fought military campaigns to gain their independence, while Brazil carried out a peaceful revolution to free itself from Portugal*From 1814-15, the Congress of Vienna, which was organized by Prime Minister Metternich of Austria, met to discuss the future of European politics*The main goals at the Congress at Vienna included:oA relation of the monarchy in France and a return to old ways of governing people.oAttempts to limit the spread of ideals about democracy. Although constitutional monarchies were permissible, absolute monarchies were preferred.oBy the time of the Congress of Vienna, there were 3 primary political views forming through Europe: Conservatives, Liberals, and RadicalsConservatives: Usually wealthy landowners and nobility argued for protecting traditional monarchies of Europe. In France, conservatives allowed for the creation of a constitutional monarchy.Liberals: Mostly middle class, business leaders and merchants wanted to give more power to elected parliament in which the educated &landowners could vote.Radicals: They scrimpy wanted to extend democracy and freedom for all people*Key Leaders in the L.A independence movementsoSimon Bolivar: helped both Venezuela and Peru to gain independenceoToussaint L"Ouverture: declared Haiti an independent nationoMiguel Hidalgo: a priest who declared Mexico's independence from SpainoO'Higgins: declared Chile independent and became the first president thereoHose de San Martin: defeated the Spanish in 1810, but was captured and sent to prisonoJean-Jacques Dessalines: defeated Napoleon's Army in Haiti*The Revolutions broke out in Europe. The people that were involved were the Poles, Danes, Germans, Italians, Czechs, Slovaks, Hungarians, Croats, and Romanians*These revolutions broke out for reasons such as recession, abuse of political power, and that people wanted universal suffrage*Social structureoAt the top of Spanish American society were the peninsulares, men who had been born in Spain. Only peninsulares could hold high office in SpainoCreoles, Spaniards born in Latin America, ranked after the peninsulares. Creoles could not hold high level political office. But they could rise as officers in Spanish colonial armies. The peninsulares and the creoles controlled wealth and power in the coloniesoMestizo: persons of mixed European and Indian ancestryoMulattos: persons of mixed European and African ancestryoAt the bottom of the social ladder stood Indians. They were severely oppressed*Results of the RevolutionsoDemonstrated that people can under mind the government and create liberty and socialismoInfluenced other countries to revoltoNew government nations were formed19th century nationalism*Nationalism is the belief that one's greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an...

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