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Nucleic Acids And Protein Synthesis; Outline

1588 words - 6 pages

Outline on Iportant subjects in DNA and RNA -Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis7-1 DNACells 'know' how to how to produce ATP, how to build cilia and centrioles, howto produce membranes and enzymes.A program, or code, in living cells must be able to duplicate itself quickly andaccurately and must also have a means of being decoded and put into effect.The Genetic CodeBiologists call the program of the cell the genetic code. The work genetic refersto anything that relates to heredity. The genetic code is the way in which cells storeprogram that they seem to pass from one generation to another.TransformationWhen a strain of information is passed to another, it is called transformation.The Transforming FactorDNA is the nucleic acid that stores and transmits the genetic information fromone generation of an organism to the next. DNA carries the genetic code.BacteriophagesSome virusus are known as bacteriophages which mean bacteria eaters.Bacteriophages are composed of a DNA core and a protein coat. They attach themselvesto the surface of a bacterium and then inject a material into the bacterium. Once insidethe bacterium, the injected material begins to reproduce, making may copies of thebacteriophage. Soon the bacterium bursts, and several hundred bacteriophages arereleased to infect other cells. Because the material injected into the bacterium producesnew bacteriophages, it must contain the genetic code.The Structure of DNADNA is a polymer formed from units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is amolecule make up of three basic parts: a 5-carbon sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphategroup, and a nitrogenous, or nitrogen-containing, base.DNA contains four nitrogenous bases. Two of the nitrogenous bases, adenine andguanine, belonging to a group of compounds known as purines. The remaining two,cytosine and thymine, are known as pyrimidines.Individual nucleotides are joined together to form a long chain.X-Ray EvidenceFibers that make up DNA are twisted, like the strands of a rope. Large groups ofmolecules in the fiber are spaced out at regular intervals along the length of theThe Replcation of DNABecause each of the two strands of the DNA double hehx has all the information,by the mechanism of base pairing, to reconstruct the other half, the strands are said tobe complementary. There are four nitrogenous bases in DNA. Each strand of the doublehelix of DNA serves as a template, or pattern, against which a new strand is made.Before a cell divides, it must duplicate its DNA. This ensures that each resulting cell willhave a complete set of DNA molecules. This copying process is known as replication.DNA replication, or DNA synthesis, is carried out by a series of enzymes. Theseenzymes separate, or 'unzip,' the two strands of the double helix, insert theappropriate bases, and produce covalent sugar-phosphate links to extend the growingDNA chains. The enzymes even 'proofread' the bases that have been inserted to ensurethat they are paired correctly.The unzipping...

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