NURSES ROLE IN PAIN MANAGEMENT AND MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION
Our patients are exposed to many procedures and treatments that cause discomfort and pain. Others have pain due to their disease. Fear of pain is a major concern for the hospitalized patients. Presence of pain could affect the patient and family negatively and has an important role on recovery, mortality and quality of life.
DEFINITION OF PAIN
According to the International Association for the Study of Pain ( IASP) and the American Pain Society (APS), “ Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage,or described in terms such as damage.”
Pain threshold and pain tolerance differ s in that the latter is a physiological attribute thatdescribes the amount of stimulus that the patient can endure before recognizing that he has pain. Painthreshold is a physiological attribute that denotes the intensity of the stimulus needed to sense pain.
CLASSIFICATION OF PAIN
Pain that begins suddenly and last for a relatively short period of time (generally up to 6 months). It is localized, sharp and intense and usually related to a specific, recent event such as surgery or injury. This type of pain last briefly, up to 6 months. Some examples are:
· Pain during dressing change
· Pain of acute MI
· Pain related to surgery
Pain that lasts for 6 months or longer. Some examples are:
· Chronic back pain
· Arthritis pain
· Cancer pain
OTHER TERMS THAT USED TO DESCRIBE PAIN
Pain that is located within the main body cavity because of illness or injury to an internal organ. Although, the three main centers for this type of pain are the thorax, pelvis and abdomen it could radiate to the back and chest as well.
Pain that is occurring in a part of the body other than the original source of pain.
Also known as the musculoskeletal pain. It is characterized as a sharp discomfort in tissue such as skin and muscles as well as in joints, bones and ligaments.
Pain that is caused by cancer or the result of its treatment.
NON- MALIGNANT PAIN
Pain that is chronic and it’s not caused by cancer, chronic non-malignant pain.
Provocative or Palliative - Ask your patient what makes the pain better or worse.
Quality– Let your patient describe the pain or ask if it is like a burning, crushing, stabbing, aching etc.
Radiation –Ask your patient does the pain radiate to another body part.
Severity – Ask your patient how bad his pain if you are going to rate it from 0-10. (10 being the worst).
Timing – Ask your patient if it occurs in association to something else such as eating, exertion, movement and others.
VISUAL ANALOG SCALE (VAS)
To use this scale, ask your patient to place a line across the scale to indicate the current level of pain. The scale is a 10 cm line, one end with “ NO PAIN” and at the other end “ PAIN AS BAD AS IT CAN BE.” The pain rating is determined by...