Ireland began training nurses in the 1950s using the Apprenticeship Model. Nurses were trained by shadowing a current health professional on a one-to-one basis. From 1950 to the 1960s, nursing education was not a priority because it was not financially sustainable. Instead, nursing students were used as salaried employees in order to have sufficient health care staff. Therefore, nursing education was inferior to the increase demand for health services (O’Dwyer, 2007).
Nurses in Ireland had little to no influence on health care changes from the 1950s-1990’s. This was due to the fact that doctors were seen as the only authority figures. Nurses were not given the opportunity to become leaders until the 1990’s, when nurses began speaking on policy making. The first strike occurred in October of 1999 and lasted nine days (O’Dwyer, 2007). The strike included members of the Irish Nurses Organization and Psychiatric Nurses Association. The purpose of the strike was to help reform nurse education, obtain higher wages, and for nurses to gain more respect as health professionals (O’Dwyer, 2007).
Before explorers and missionaries arrived in Kenya, traditional birth attendants and healers existed as health providers. The traditional healers consisted of herbalists, witch doctors, and the elders. The uses of herbs, roots, magic, and the participation in sacrifice rituals to the ancestors, tribe circumcisions, and home births, were common traditions practiced. The Kenyans did not associate illness with bacterial microorganisms, but instead associated illness with the evil eye, evil tongue, witch craft, and angry ancestors (Mule, 1986). Traditional practices declined upon the arrival of explorers and missioners because of the introduction of modern medicine.
Medical centers were set up by the new settlers. The missioners and explorers eventually began to get sick, so they had to produce their own nurses and doctors to deliver health care (Mule, 1986). The settlers had to educate the locals in order to have a sufficient amount of health professionals to deliver care. Communication was a problem among teaching the Kenyans, so basic education was first, then nursing education. Nursing education for the Kenyans was difficult because of the norms, customs, and beliefs associated with touching human waste, blood, and the dead (Mule, 1986).
The Kenyan Government created the population policy in 1965, which showed that the Kenyan population will double in 17 years (Mule, 1986). In order to prevent a nursing shortage with the increase in patient care, the government had to repeat what the missioners and explorers had done previously. The solution to the problem was educating and training midwifes, enrolled community nurse (ECN), and registered nurses (RNs) to provide family care (Mule, 1986). Before, only foreigners provided family care.
In 1967, the working committee became the body of policy makers in Kenya (Mule, 1986). The policy making committee was able...