Cultural competence and linguistic competence is the new trend in health care industry. What does being competent culturally and linguistically mean? The Office of Minority Health (OMH, 2013) defines cultural and linguistic competence as a set of “behavior, attitudes and policies that influence effective work in a cross cultural situation.” According to OMH (2013) culture influences how health care is delivered, received, and the final outcome. In this report the author will discuss Leininger’s theory of cultural care diversity and universality in the context of nursing practice, the social, political and ethical implication and the benefits and limitation of this theory.
Theory in Nursing Practice
Theory Choice and Rationale
The concept of culture care diversity and universality evolved from Leininger observing pediatric patients response to nurse specialists in a setting of child psychology. In this setting, Leininger observed that children from diverse backgrounds responded differently to the treatment plan than the children from the same background as the nurse. Essentially the children with a multicultural background did not respond positively compared to the others. Therefore, Leininger deduced that culture influences how care is received and that is related how the patient communicates with the care giver. In other words if the patient cannot identify with the care giver and accept the treatment plan as being in congruent with his or her belief and value then Leininger inferred more than likely the plan of care will not be well received and compliance will be compromised.
Culture Care Diversity and Universality
Culture care refers to nurses understanding a patient’s cultural and religious difference. Gibson (2008) describes her experience while caring for an Amish baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Gibson (2008) was not exposed to the Amish culture and had to research on the ways of life of the Amish in order to communicate with the family respectfully. Diversity responds to the multiculturalism of the patient population. Universality encompasses expressions and care that exist in a culture that may influence how care is received. Politics and policies that shape health care of a country are examples of universality. Miller (1997) discusses the effect of politics on health care. For example, in the U.S. the culture dictates that health care be provided as a fee for service and competition drives the price. Everyone is not entitled to have health care. Where as in a country such as the former Soviet Union, health care was provided for everyone and it was managed by the government (Miller, 1997).
Culture care diversity and universality urges nurses to consider and acknowledge the patients cultural background and belief and incorporate it in the treatment plan to ensure curing. According to Leininger (1988) the theory of culture care diversity and universality affirms that care is required for...