Nursing Metaparadigm and Nursing Theory
When planning and providing care for a patient, nurses can benefit from understanding and utilizing various nursing theories. They help us focus care, individualize treatment, identify risk factors, health care needs and educational needs. Nursing theories, such as Betty Neuman’s nursing systems model, can be used within the four concepts of the nursing metaparadigm to address all aspects of care. “In the United States, the nursing metaparadigm has been widely used to describe four spheres of nursing knowledge that reflect beliefs held by the profession about nursing’s context and content” (Myers Schim, Benkert, Bell, Walker, & Danford, 2007, p. 73).
Nursing’s metaparadigm consists of four concepts. These concepts include the person, health, environment and nursing. The concept of person refers to the recipient of care, which may include a person, their family or even the community. Nurses must respect the unique qualities of each patient, family and community and should provide individualized care to meet those needs. Health refers to an individual’s state of health being a balance between their developmental and behavioral wellness to the fullest extent possible. Since health is dynamic and constantly changing one must constantly adapt to change, which may lead to stressors that can have a negative affect on health if not addressed. Environment refers to all the outside conditions that affect the patient within the setting where health care needs occur. These may include health care needs that are being influenced by factors at home, in school or at the workplace. Finally nursing is the diagnosis and treatment of the current or potential health problems. By developing nursing diagnosis, nurses can focus their care interventions to address the problem more effectively, which will lead to better outcomes.
Neuman’s Systems Model of Nursing Theory
The Neuman systems model is a nursing theory that is concerned with the person as a whole and uses an open systems approach of care to address an individuals stressors. The nurse assesses, manages and evaluates the patients systems and focuses on the variables affecting the client’s response to the stressor. Nursing actions include primary, secondary and tertiary levels of prevention. Primary prevention focuses on strengthening a line of defense by identifying actual or potential risk factors associated with stressors. Secondary prevention strengthens internal defenses by establishing priorities and treatment plans for the identified symptoms. Tertiary prevention focuses on preventing a recurrence of the stress response through patient education.
Nursing Metaparadigm - Person
Nurses can utilize Neuman’s theory to assist in planning individualized care for a patient that is experiencing overwhelming stressors. For example, when assessing your patient you learn that they are experiencing anxiety related to marital issues...