Nursing Theories Essay

1110 words - 4 pages

As nurses enter into the practice of nursing, they recognize the importance of using their education to guide their actions within the clinical setting. “Theories are pattern that guide the thinking about, being and doing, of nursing” (Parker, 2006, p.8). Comparing theories allows the core structure of the theories to be brought to light, as well as display the merits of using a particular theory while practicing nursing. The theories of Martha Rogers and Betty Neuman were developed at roughly the same point in time, which means that different theories can arise out of the same general world situation. Rogers Science of Unitary Beings illustrates a truly holistic view, as it hypothesizes that human beings and their environment are energy fields which are irreducible elements of the universe. On the other hand, Neuman uses a systematic model to describe human-environment interaction. While these theories have similarities, their differences as models for nursing and in clinical use provide great insight into how important theories are to nursing practice and research. This paper will discuss the theories of Rogers and Neuman, their implications in practice and research, and the future of these theories in nursing. These two theories were chosen because they provide differing perspectives on how humans interact with the world, community and healthcare.
As one of nursing’s leading scientists, Martha Rogers developed the “Martha E. Rogers’ Science of Unitary Beings” to provide a scientific and holistic theory for nursing and nursing education (Parker, 2006, p. 160). The largest part of her theory rests in the concept of energy fields, which Rogers believed was the focus of nursing, rather than health or health promotion (Parker, 2006, p. 162). These energy fields are “the irreducible human being and its environment” (Rogers as cited in Parker, 2006, pp. 161-2). Similar to the concept of atoms, energy fields are the fundamental unit used in Rogers’ theory to define the universe, and therefore, these units are what should be used to guide nursing practice and nursing education. The concept of human beings as energy fields is not an unusual one for the entire world, although it has been used rarely in Western healthcare. “Energy-based healing interventions have been found throughout history [such as, ] Hippocrates [’ reference to the] ‘biofield’ of energy flow from people’s hands, [t]he Indian Chakra [… ,] qigong [, and Reiki]” (vanderVaart, Gijsen, de Wildt & Koren, 2009, p. 1157). This alignment of beliefs about energy fields and humanity is one of the parts about Rogers’ theory that allows it to be a basis for culturally competent nursing, but it also has many critics within the biomedical field.
As a theory though, the concept of energy fields is not enough to guide nursing practice, so Rogers’ sub-concepts of openness, acausality, and pandimensionality help elaborate on the expectations of nursing care. While all are related to holistic...

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