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Obesity And Hepatocellular Carcinoma Essay

973 words - 4 pages

Liver cancer is a common form of cancer that affects approximately 30,650 new individuals each year (1). The most common form of liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is more predominate in men over women. Along with gender, age also is a large role in the probability of getting HCC. Generally, most of the individuals that are diagnosed with liver cancer are 45 and older, with an average age of 63 (1). Another nonmodifiable factors that can lead to HCC is ethnicity. The risk of having liver cancer greatly increases if you are from the Pacific Islands or are an Asian American (2). Some common behavioral risk factors that can increase an individual’s change of getting HCC are ...view middle of the document...

This study followed the main cell marker p21Waf1/Cip1, which is expressed in the liver and previously known to be in liver cancer (6).
In another particular study done conducted from 1996-2008, 1000 individuals were sampled who underwent orthotic liver transplant (OLT) to see if HCC would reoccur (5). Using BMI and dividing individuals into subcategories such as non-obese, overweight and obese, researches were able to analyze how many participants got HCC and their survival rate after surgery. For obese and overweight individuals with BMIs at or over 25 kg/m2, there was a 15% reoccurrence for HCC in each group, while non-obese individuals only showed a 7% reoccurrence (5). Survival rates for individuals that showed non-obese BMIs had an average of 58 years while obese individuals only showed survival of 41 years after surgery (5).
The PNPLA3 variant is another cell marker that is common in liver cancer. A study was done in Sweden to see if there was a correlation with PNPLA3 and obese individuals. Researchers tested 3,473 individuals and divided them into two subcategories of a control group with 1,719 individuals and a surgery group with 1,754 individuals (3). The surgery group underweight weight loss surgeries such as banding, gastric bypass, or gastroplasty to show a decrease in BMI. The results showed that the PNPLA3 variant was correlated with an increase in the HCC seen in the control group (P-value of .001), but not in the surgery group (P-value of .783) (3).
HCC and other types of liver cancer are continuing to increase in the population today due to the increasing amount of overweight individuals. Various studies have been done internationally to show that obesity is a large risk factor for liver cancer. In Denmark, a study...

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