Throughout the ages civilization was always eager to learn more about space. They had a lot of questions. For instance if the earth was round or flat or if earth is the center of the universe. Astronomy is needed for many things, but to learn more about space you needed observatories. Observatories in the Islamic Golden Age were not how they are today - they were research institutions.
The first observatory in the world was built in 825 in Baghdad (Iraq). Many followed years later in cities like Istanbul (Turkey), Rayy (Iran), Samarkand (Uzbekistan)and Tabriz (Iran). But in these observatories they didn’t only research about astronomy. They worked on subjects like chemistry, physics and medicine.
There were many scholars over the years. Astronomers, Mathematicians even Sultans. Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf was the chief astronomer of the Ottoman Empire. In 1574 he was invited by Ottoman Sultan Murād III to build an observatory in Istanbul, it was to rival Ulugh Beg’s observatory in Samarkand. Construction was completed in 1577. About at the same the another observatory was completed in Uraniborg. The observatory housed an enormous library and evan living quarter for staff.
The work in the observatory of Istanbul was prepared according to the observations made in Istanbul and Cairo, with the intention of correcting and completing the work of Ulugh Beg. Taqi al-Din was a great inventor. He built tools like the Azimuthal Semi-Circle for the accurate determination of altitudes. The Sextant was able to measure the distance between astronomical objects. The Quadrant of Rulers could measure the altitude of celestial bodies above the horizon. In a gift-exchange with europe the observatory received a celestial globe, he developed and used a advanced model of it.
The observatory was destroyed only years later, in 1580.
Factors influencing this invention and Geography
Many factors influenced this invention. People wanted to know when exactly they should pray. They...