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Observing Protein And Non Protein Catalysts Under Different Conditions

1175 words - 5 pages

Polypeptides, better known as proteins, carry out nearly all of a cell's functions. A protein is made up of at least one or more amino acid polymers. The necessity of proteins for life is unequivocal, not only do they help to form the structures of cells but they act as enzymes in reactions of the body1.Enzymes are biological catalysts that lower the amount of activation energy needed in carrying out biochemical reactions1. Enzymes are responsible for almost every reaction that occurs in a cell and is named according to the substrate they specifically affect. An enzyme works best under optimal conditions pertaining to temperature, pH level and salt concentration1. In unfavorable conditions enzymes will become denatured and ineffective. In human beings enzymes are most effective in 37 C temperatures, at a pH level of 7.2 (in the stomach a pH of 2 and in the small intestine a pH of 8.5)3 and with a daily intake of five to ten grams of salt4.Enzymes require either non-protein cofactors such as inorganic substances or organic coenzymes before they can work properly1. Manganese dioxide is an inorganic catalyst capable of breaking down hydrogen peroxide into two H2O molecules and one O2 molecule2. The concentrations of enzymes that are catalyzed during reactions are important, because enzymes can be saturated more substrate will not necessarily affect the speed at which the reactions occur. Once all available enzymes have reacted there is no use for extra substrates1.Chemical reactions involve the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another1. The process of losing electrons is called oxidization1. The process of gaining electrons is called reduction1. When comparing a protein catalyst to a non-protein catalyst the rate at which the reactions occur will be dependent on the various environmental conditions the substances are placed under.Procedure:Please see handout title SBI 4U Enzymes Lab Activity.Observations:Contents of TubeObservation of ReactionRate of Reaction(Very Slow to very Quick)Interpretation of ObservationsSand + H2O2•No reaction•Very slow reaction•Enzyme not presentMnO2 + H2O2•Fizzed/bubbled•Gas/smoke produced•Heat produced•Very quick reaction•Enzyme presentLiver + H2O2•Fizzed/ bubbled over test tube•Heat produced•Very quick reaction•Enzyme presentPotato + H2O2•Minor fizzing/bubbling•Bubbling for long time•Slow reaction•Enzyme presentUsed liver + New H2O2•Fizzed/bubbled a little over test tube•Heat produced•Liver rise•Fast reaction•Enzyme presentUsed liver + New liver + H2O2•Fizzed/bubbled over test tube•Heat produced•Liver rise•Very quick reaction•Enzyme presentCrushed potato + H2O2•Not a lot of bubbles•Lasted longer•Faster reaction then when it was sold•Enzyme presentCrushed liver + H2O2•Fizzed/bubbled over test tube•Heat produced•Fast reaction•Enzyme...

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