Eight Stages of Life:
Trust vs. mistrust - First years of life: Having basic needs met, attaching to people
Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt - 1-3 years: Gaining independence
Initiative vs. guild - 3-6 years: Acting in a socially responsible way
Industry vs. inferiority - 6-12 years: Competing with peers, preparing for adult roles
Intimacy vs. role confusion - adolescence: Determining ones identity
Intimacy vs. isolation - early adulthood: Developing intimate relationships
Generativity vs. self-absorption - middle adult hood: Being productive
Integrity vs. despair - old age: Evaluating one's life
Theory of Ego Development:
Infancy: Pre-social, No ego, Not differentiated from the world
Impulsive: Curbed by restraints, rewards, and punishments. Others are seen as what they can give. Present centered
Self-Protective: Anticipates rewards and punishments. " Don't get caught" First self-control
Conformists: Not only fear of punishments. Rules and norms not distinguished. Security= belonging
Self-Aware-Self: distinct from rules and norms.
Conscientious: Rules are internalized. Guilt is from hurting people not breaking rules. Standards distinguished from manners. Sees self from other point of view.
Individualistic: Is aware of conflict or contrasting emotions usually within ones self. Greater tolerance of self and others. Distinguishes appearance from inner reality.
Autonomous: has a high toleration for ambiguity. Compares three or more possibilities or aspects of a situation (appearance, action and feelings). Strives to cope with the conflict and tries to find a meaning or transcending it or to reconcile him or herself to it.
Integrated: has a fully worked out identity. Self actualization (to determine ones path) has a deep perception of conflict.
Family Life Cycle:
Individuals are launched from their families of origin. Parents & children must separate so that young people can gain emotional responsibility for themselves Development involves change in response to crisis so that the family can move on to a different stage.
The following three tasks must be completed: Young adults must…
Sort out emotionally what they will take along from the family origin,...