On The Visible Human Project Essay

1249 words - 5 pages

It's the 7th of March, 1981. Joseph Paul Jernigan is a mechanic from Kane, Illinois. He is not a particularly significant man, nor is he particularly smart or compassionate. The fact that he failed to efficiently steal a microwave oven from 75-year-old Edward Hale is evidence that he lacked brains. The fact that he stabbed Hale with a kitchen knife before shooting him thrice (\cite{texas}) with a shotgun is evidence of his lack of compassion \footnote{originally he left with the microwave, scott-free - but later he returned because he thought Hale would be able to identify him (\cite{rothman}). Really not a smart guy}.\

For his crimes, he was sentenced to death by lethal injection. He spent 12 years on death row. . During this time, medical imaging modalities such as MR had become wildly popular in medicine, and the microwave oven has become inexpensive and common in households. After a series of failed appeals, it's thought that Jernigan was convinced to donate his body to medical science by a prison chaplain, who said it would get him a free funeral (\cite{murderpedia}). Little did he know that his decision would make make him one of the most famous cadavers in history. \

A team at the National Library of Medicine, led by Michael J. Ackerman, had been assigned to develop a method of accurately imaging a complete human body in 3 dimensions. They had spent the past 2 years looking for a suitable cadaver - and Jernigan was now their best hope. He was of average weight, height and build, and his body had not been damaged by illness or accident.

His last meal was hamburgers and fries, which he refused. He spoke no last words. But on August the 5th, 1993, Joseph Paul Jernigan became immortal.

\section{Imaging the Cadaver}

The team called their project the 'Visible Human Project'. It was to include \emph{'digital images derived from computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photographic images from cryosectioning of cadavers'} \cite{spitzer1996visible}. After Jernigan died, his body was injected with formalin and anticoagulant to neutralize the tissue deterioration caused by the lethal injection. At just 15.5 hours after death, the cadaver had been flown over 1,000 miles from Texas to the University of Colorado School of Medicine. It was time for the cadaver to be prepared for imaging. \

MRI and CT scans were conducted first, as the cadaver needed to be frozen and preserved for cryosectioning - but freezing was likely to cause some damage to the tissue. To keep the body still while it was being imaged, it was placed into a plywood mold, which was filled with immobilizing foam \footnote{Alpha Cradle AC660, to be precise.}. The cadaver and mold were both placed in a dry ice freezing chamber for 2 days. \

After more scans, the cryosectioning process began. Cryosectioning works just like it sounds - the frozen cadaver was essentially 'sectioned'. UoC Medical School had specifically constructed a milling machine, that used a...

Find Another Essay On On The Visible Human Project

The Human Genome Project Essay

1046 words - 4 pages , Japan, Germany, the UK, Italy, Russia, France, the Netherlands, Canada, Israel and elsewhere. The Human Genome Project aims to: * Determine the sequence of the four bases (adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine) throughout all the DNA in human cells; * Identify the estimated 100 000 genes formed by the bases; * Find the locations of the genes on the 23 human chromosomes; * Store all this

The Human Genome Project Essay

813 words - 3 pages information in the DNA is given by the order of the nucleotide bases, and each gene possesses a unique sequence of base pairs. Scientists use these base sequences to locate the position of genes on chromosomes and to construct a map of the entire human genome. The project was intended to identify all the Gene in the nucleus of a human cell; to launch, by a process known as mapping, where those genes are located on the

The Human Genome Project

2753 words - 11 pages race became a key issue. Many of the other issues stemmed from ethical concerns. Health and medical care implications could have a profound effect on society and individuals through prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of genetic diseases. Thanks to the HGP things like insight into basic biology, development of new technology, and medicine may be increased drastically. History The official start of the Human Genome Project was in 1990 as

The Human Genome Project

1153 words - 5 pages The Human Genome Project (HGP), an international scientific research project, has educated the public tremendously on various topics concerning DNA and genetics. This study has been beneficial to communities alike. As stated, the HGP sought to identify all the genes in human DNA, determine the sequences of the three billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, store this information in databases, improve tools for data analysis, transfer

The Human Genome Project

2593 words - 10 pages 60-70% of the human genome. The other 30-40% will be sequenced by the Sanger Center, a project funded by the Wellcome Trust, and other international partners' (1). The task of sequencing the human genome is time consuming and very tedious. Since the start of the HGP, there has been a very large emphasis on developing new technology to speed progress and cut costs. The DOE has played a large part in the advancement of this new technology. Much

The Human Genome Project

1500 words - 6 pages The Human Genome Project The human genome project is something that I have been very interested with ever since first learning of it. I had heard bits and pieces of what it is about, but my interest was greatly stimulated by Dr. Whited in basic genetics 311 last spring. The discussion that we had regarding the project left me with several ideas and questions about not only the process and ethics involved, but the future of the study of

The Human Genome Project - 699 words

699 words - 3 pages base pairs. The order of these base pairs are extremely important and determine everything in an organism. The Human Genome Project started in the mid-1980’s and was discussed widely throughout the scientific community and public press in the last years of the decade. In the United States, DOE first and soon afterward NIH were the main research agencies within the US government responsible for developing and planning the project. By 1988, the

The Human Genome Project (HGP)

3246 words - 13 pages dystrophies (a chromosomal mutation that occurs on X sex chromosome that can either be expressed by the male or female’. Furthermore it allows the formation of specialized treatment that could alleviate all possible genetic deformities. Conclusion: In conclusion, the Human Genome project has spurred on a lot of radical discoveries due to the increased quality of the genome. In turn this has resulted in 80 000 genes identified in terms of

The Completion of the Human Genome Project

660 words - 3 pages implement a large-scale analysis of human genome, includes analysis of the gene expression regulation, human gene variation, and interactions between genes and the environment, to advance medicine. The completion of the Human Genome Project helped expand the our knowledge of genomic medicine. The Human Genome Project is the “international, collaborative research program whose goal was the complete mapping and understanding of all the genes of human

Morality and the Human Genome Project

1261 words - 5 pages is important in making a moral judgment on thisgenetic technology.Any attempt to resolve moral issues involving new information from theHuman Genome Project requires direct, clear, and total understanding ofcommon morality. Subsequently, a moral theory is the attempt to explain,justify, and make visible 'the moral system that people use in making theirmoral judgments and how to act when confronting a moral problem' (Gert,31).This theory is based

Morality And The Human Genome Project

1247 words - 5 pages "build reasearch infrastructure for genetics." Making the directives of the Human Genome Project apparent is important in making a moral judgment on this genetic technology.      Any attempt to resolve moral issues involving new information from the Human Genome Project requires direct, clear, and total understanding of common morality. Subsequently, a moral theory is the attempt to explain, justify, and make visible "the moral system that

Similar Essays

The Affects Of The Human Genome Project On Society

3331 words - 13 pages The Affects of the Human Genome Project on Society Today’s society has an ever growing thirst for knowledge as we have for many hundreds of years now. Scientists work around the clock studying the affects of nearly everything they can think of to conduct experiments on. This quest for knowledge is the supposed start to a better life for man kind and ultimately a world without disease or hunger. The human genome project is one that has

The Human Genome Project Essay 478 Words

478 words - 2 pages The Human Genome ProjectThe Human Genome Project is a 13-year project started in 1990 and coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. The project originally was planned to last 15 years, but rapid technological advances have accelerated the expected completion date to 2003. Project goals are to·identify all the approximate 30,000 genes in human DNA,·determine the sequences of the 3 billion

The Human Genome Project Essay 1349 Words

1349 words - 5 pages also be addressed. Members of the scientific community disagree as to whether the benefits of the Human Genome Project outweigh the costs. Some researchers question the scientific merits of this monumental project, especially in an era of diminishing funding for basic scientific research. Some scientists argue that dwindling federal funds would be better spent on specific research projects, such as cures for heart disease and cancer. Other

The Human Genome Project Essay 962 Words

962 words - 4 pages important that the situation not become more prevalent, that is why politics decide rules to limit in an efficient way the Scientists. Like this they are about to protect the environment.And also the cloning may become a reality. All the possibility can be imagine like the trade of clones as slaves.The Human Genome Project is nearly done, gene replacement therapy lies within reach, and cloning is on the horizon. Genetically altered foods have