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Ontologies Essay

1958 words - 8 pages

Contents21. Introduction 32. Why develop an ontology? 43. Elements of Ontologies 54. Design Criteria in Ontologies 65. Advantages of Ontologies 76. Disadvantages of Ontologies 97. Conclusion 108. List of references IntroductionOntologies in computer science are computer based resources that represent agreed domain semantics. An Ontology consists of relatively generic knowledge that can be reused by different kinds of applications/tasks. Ontology comprises a set of concepts and concept relationships representative to the domain. Concepts and their relations define conceptual models for classifying information objects under different dimensions. Dimensions are typically independent from each other and they have their own conceptual models. Ontology can be more than a taxonomy or classification, and can include multiple types of relationships between concepts. The following paper will discuss about ontology in computer science. The paper will converse the importance of the development of an ontology. The research paper will then discuss the various advantages and disadvantages of ontologies and the various constraints pertaining to its development. The research paper will also illustrate the various elements of a typical ontology and describe how they relate to each other.Why develop an ontology?An ontology is the source of common vocabulary for researchers who need to share information in a domain. It includes machine-interpretable definitions of basic concepts in the domain and relations among them. The main reasons for the development of an ontology are (Booch, Rumbaugh & Jacobson, 1997): -To share common understanding of the structure of information among people or software agents: This is the most common goal for developing an ontology. Example - several different websites contain pharmaceutical information or provide health e-commerce services. If these websites share and publish the same underlying ontology of the terms they all use, then computer mediators can mine and aggregate information from these different sites. The computer mediators can then use this aggregated information to respond to user queries or to input data to other applications.To enable reuse of domain knowledge: This is one of the driving forces behind ontology development. For example, models for many different domains need to represent the continuous monitoring of weather patterns. This representation includes the notions of wind paths, relative measures of weather, and so on. If one group of researchers develops such an ontology in detail, others can simply reuse it for their own domains. Additionally, if we need to build a large ontology, we can integrate several existing ontologies describing portions of the large domain.To make domain assumptions explicit: Making the domain assumptions explicit makes it easy to change these assumptions if the knowledge pertaining to the domain changes. Coding the assumptions in an implicit manner makes these assumptions not only...

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