Operating System Essay

10123 words - 40 pages

IntroductionIn this operating systems review report, researcher will mainly discuss and provide technical overview on UNIX based system and Windows 2000 system. The discussion on the OS will separate into two sections. For the first section, researcher will discuss on the UNIX systems. In the section two, the researcher will focus on Microsoft Window 2000.Section AUNIX SYSTEMBackgroundIn 1970, Bell Labs created UNIX system and operational on a PDP-7. Work on UNIX at Bell Labs, and later elsewhere, produced a series of versions of UNIX. The first important milestone was porting the UNIX system from the PDP-7 to the PDP-11. Which mean that UNIX would be an operating system for all computers. The next important milestone was the rewriting of UNIX in the programming language C. This was an unheard-of strategy at the time. It was generally felt that something as complex as an operating system, which must deal with critical-time events, had to be written exclusively in assembly language. The C implementation demonstrated the advantages of using a high-level language for most if not all of the system code. Today, all the UNIX implementations are written in C.In 1974, the UNIX system was described in a technical journal for the first time [RITC74]. In 1976, Version 6 introduced and it was the first widely distribution version outside Bell Labs. Then the follow on Version 7 was released in 1978, it consider as most modern UNIX systems. University of California developed UNIX BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution), which first running on PDP and then VAX machines not AT&T systems. By 1982, Bell Labs had combined several AT&T variants of UNIX into a single system, marketed commercially as UNIX System III. A number of features was later added to the operating system to produce UNIX System V.Figure 1.1 UNIX Development ChartUNIX System OverviewIn figure 2.1, it will provide a clear general description of the UNIX architecture. The underlying hardware is surrounded by the operating system software. The operating system is often called the system kernel, or simply the kernel, to emphasize its isolation from the user and applications. UNIX comes equipped with a number of user services and interfaces that are considered part of the system. These can be grouped into the shell, other interface software, and the components of the C compiler (compiler, assembler, loader). The layer outside of this consists of user applications and the user interface to the C compiler.Figure 2.1 General UNIX ArchitectureA closer look at the kernel is provided in Figure 2.2. User programs can invoke operating system services either directly or through library programs. The system call interface is the boundary with the user and allows higher-level software to gain access to specific kernel functions. At the other end, the operating system contains primitive routines that interact directly with the hardware. Between these two interfaces, the system is divided into two main parts,...

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