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Optical Fiber Communications And Dwdm Essay

881 words - 4 pages

Fiber optics technology is among fastest - growing communications technologies in the world. It is increasingly being used for communications signaling, and electrical control instead of older -technology hardwired system.Fiber optic cable uses light to transmit signals. The core of Fiber optic cable is composed of one or more thin strands of either very pure glass or plastic, millions of which can be bundled together in a sheathing.In 1860, Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated that light reflected off of mirrors was modulated by waves of sound. Later, American researchers were able to demonstrate the transmission of an image through a bundle of glass fibers. Researchers began experimenting with cladding which greatly improved transmission characteristics by reducing the dispersion of light. Later, lasers were implemented as light sources because they could provide parallel light in a steady stream at only one wavelength.The first of the low-loss optical fibers was created in 1970. In 1980, the first major Fiber Optic communication link between Boston, Mass, and Richmond, VA, was created. A year later, low-loss, single-mode fibers with high bandwidth and low loss capabilities to increase data transmission rates were created. Starting in the mid-eighties, the major communication companies began installing long-distance Fiber Optic communication systems using single-mode fibers. In 1988 the first transatlantic Fiber Optic cable was installed.Since then, Optical Fiber technology has been implemented in major communication networks that have realized its significance and importance.Two basic optical fiber are commonly being installed: singlemode and multimode. Each type has a particular use in the communication industry, although there may be some overlap in usage.A singlemode optical cable may have a core diameter of 8 to 10 microns, while a multimode cable may have a core diameter of between 50 and 1,000 microns. A singlemode cable allows a higher bandwidth to be transmitted over a larger distance than a multimode cable.Singlemode cableThe multimode optical cable, however, has a larger core, and will allow more modes of light to travel down it. The bandwidth of a digital system is the number of bits of signal per second that can be transmitted over the cable for a certain distance and specific amount of time.Multimode optical cableWavelength division multiplexing:Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is a type of multiplexing developed for both digital and analog transmission on fiber optic cables .Optical fiber transmits signals as pulses of light generated by a laser or LED. In WDM, each signal is assigned to a particular wavelength on an optical fiber communications line. WDM allows massive data transmission on a single cable. A research report on WDM, published by IBM, concludes that eventually fiber optics cables will run to every residence, with...

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