Organisation and Work of the People at BletchleyPark
In 1938, Chief of M.I.6; Admiral Sinclair purchased, at his own
expense, the house that would later be converted into Bletchley Park.
At the beginning of the war, Station X had two main goals. The first
was to decode the signals sent by the Germans using simple encryption
which were easily cracked. The second goal was the mission of cracking
the Enigma coding system which the Germans used to send the more vital
The first arrivals of Station X were split into two categories; the
first were the code breakers, mainly the academic group, which
previously helped break codes. The second was the administrative team,
which were mostly young girls in their late teens and/or early
twenties. The first arrivals were soon joined by the mathematicians.
At first, all the departments of Station X were crammed into the main
house and some cottages. In September 1939, a wooden extension to the
main house was constructed and was called Hut 4, which was later
expanded to Hut 8. This housed the Naval section, which were at the
time working on decoding non-Enigma messages, however, at the time of
the expansion to Hut 8, the Naval section were starting to work on
Enigma codes too.
By the beginning of 1940, Station X was based around two huts. Hut 6
which would decode the messages then send them to Hut 3 which would
translate the messages. When decoding in Hut 6 was finished, the
messages were then sent to Hut 3, usually made no sense. Welchman had
a system of processes in place within Hut 3, which would decode the
Enigma messages when they were able to. Other Huts such as Hut 1 and
11 were also constructed, of which Hut 1 designed to store 'Bombes'.
'Bombes' were the electronic machines made by Alan Turing to decrease
the amount of time taken to figure out a setting.
In early 1942, Station X was under severe pressure to keep up with the
work-load. So Welchman decided to write a letter to Winston Churchill
asking for more resources for their work that Churchill himself has
praised previously. The letter was read by Churchill himself, and his
reply was "Make sure that they have all that they want extreme
priority and report to me that this has been done, ATD" (Action This
Day) which was an order to perform actions instantaneously.
While Station X was being overloaded with supplies, it still had to
keep its secrecy. This meant that contact between Huts was by tubes,
which was designed so that threats from German spies were reduced.
"Ultra" was added to these messages, which meant no action could be
taken unless this information was proven from another source.
Breaking the Enigma Code at BletchleyPark
The Enigma machine was a typewriter that encoded messages. The purpose
of the Enigma Machine was to create messages in an...