What is organizational development? Beckhard (1996) defined organizational development as an effort planned, organization wide, and managed from the top, to increase organizational effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organization’s “process,” using behavior-science (Anderson, 2012, p.2). Nowadays in the business field, in order for an organization to be successful, they must be flexible. They must implement effective organizational development (OD) interventions which are “intended to make an organization and its constituent parts self-conscious with respect to how results are accomplished and how individuals and groups relate to each other” (Leach, 1978, p. 34). “ OD interventions involve respect for people, a climate of trust and support, shared power, open confrontation of issues, and the active participation of stakeholders” (Justo, 2009, ¶ 1). This research paper identifies the different interventions; define one intervention, why interventions fail, and planning interventions for success.
There are different levels an organization may be trying to improve such as individual, group, organization, or trans-organization. “According to Robbins (1994), OD integrates a collection of planned change interventions that relies on humanistic and democratic values, aimed at improving organizational effectiveness, and employees’ well-being” (Justo, 2009, ¶ 3). Four major interventions that are being used today are strategic, technostructural, management and leadership development, and team development and group process interventions.
Strategic Intervention focuses on the organization and its interaction with its external environment, and is often involving changes to many areas of the organization (McNamara, 2011). Strategic intervention can be examined closely by looking at integrated strategic change, trans-organizational development, mergers and acquisitions integration, culture change, self-designing organizations, and organization learning and knowledge management (Cite HR, 2007). Self-designing is a major key to the entire process being a success. This process is highly participative, and involves multiple upper managers in setting strategic direction and designing and carrying out appropriate structures and processes (Cite HR, 2007). Justo (2009) noted that Cummings and Worley state that these interventions “link the internal functioning of the organization to the larger environment; transforming the organization to keep pace with changing conditions” (¶5). Helping organizations to better understand their positioning and their environment is part of strategic intervention, which allows them to target tactics for competing or collaborating with other organizations (Justo, 2009).
McNamara (2011) indicated technostructural intervention focus on improving the performance of organizations primarily by modifying structures, technologies, operations,...