C H A P T E R
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT
Organizational behavior is the study of how people act, think, and feel in organized settings. The roots of the field go back thousands of years. Since the 1900s, major perspectives on organizational behavior have included scientific management, the human relations approach, and the contingency approach.
Adopting a contingency orientation means recognizing that organizational behavior is complex and driven by a variety of factors. Consequently, pat (or "cookbook") answers are elusive. Managers must develop their own answers, at least to an extent.
Outstanding managers possess four sets of skills that allow them to effectively navigate the process of manag- ing behavior. That process involves (1) identifying the behavioral challenge; (2) identifying the causes of current behavior; (3) choosing a strategy for attaining behavioral goals; and (4) implementing and adjusting the chosen strategy as needed.
The behavioral challenges managers face today are exacerbated by the increasing complexity of the work envi- ronment and the fast pace of demographic and technological changes.
The work force is becoming increasingly diverse. Most of the growth in the work force is being driven by women and various racial or ethnic minorities. Increasing internationalization is also bringing people from a variety of cultural backgrounds together in the workplace.
Being able to manage diversity well is more important than ever because decisions are increasingly made in cross-functional teams and task forces. But most corporations still have a long way to go to create a work en- vironment in which diversity is embraced.
Likewise, managers need to understand that people who traditionally have been discriminated against (e.g., gays, people with disabilities) represent valuable pools of employee talent.
Business practices, cultural values, and market structures usually vary-sometimes dramatically-from country to country. These factors impact all aspects of behavior management and raise the bar when it comes to managers' skills.
As workplace demands continue to increase, they may spill over into family life. Exacerbating the issue is the fact that family structures have shifted over the years toward more dual-career couples and single parents. Managers who can recognize these work-family issues and craft flexible solutions will be rewarded with greater employee loyalty and performance.
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America is aging. In fact, by 2025 the entire United States population will be as old demographically as Florida-the country's top retirement haven-is now. And the work force is aging, too. Over the next decade, the number of em- ployees age 50 and up will continue to rise while the number of younger employees will fall. By 2005, the...