Doctor John Miner is a writer, professor and consultant in Oregon (Miner, 2003). He studied personality theory and clinical psychology (Miner, 2003). He is currently centering his research on role motivation as it pertains to professional, hierarchic organizations, and entrepreneurial situations (Miner, 2003). Dr. Miner wrote a qualitative article on the different theories presented by different scholars for inclusion in his study. He divided the theories into first (1950s to 1970s) versus bridging (1970s to 1980s, which had some of the first generation and linked to the second generation) versus second generations (1970s and later) (Miner, 2003).
There were two different types of judges: strategic management versus the organizational behavior (Miner, 2003). The strategic behavior managers gave low scores to the organizational behavior theories (Miner, 2003). There are many different categories the theories can be broken down into; however, the main areas are motivation, leadership, decision making, and organizational (Miner, 2003).
Theories from the Miner article
Dr. Miner included seventy-three different theories in his article (Miner, 2003). Among the seventy-three different theories Dr. Miner included in his article were the McClelland's achievement motivation theory, Hackman and Oldham's job characteristics theory, Adams's equity theory, and Locke's goal-setting theory (Miner, 2003). Locke’s goal-setting theory was the most impressive.
Goal setting states that the conscious motivation affects the individual’s performance and how satisfied they are with their job (Locke & Latham, 2002). There are four area goals play a role within the amount of performance the employee does: directive function (they direct the attention towards the relevant goals, and away from distractions), has an energizing function (the higher the goal, the better the performance), affect persistence (a time period sets how hard or easy an individual work on a set goal), goals affects action (indirectly through arousal, discovery, and knowledge) (Locke & Latham, 2002). Goal setting sets out to allow an individual to do their best, which leads them to set their own goals and strive to achieve them based upon wanting to earn a specific reward for reaching for higher goals. By having times lines to reach different goals in order to achieve the specific award, raises the aerosol of the individual to try to reach the goal or lose out on the reward being offered (Locke & Latham, 2002). Through subconscious efforts, the employee wants to do their best to achieve the highest award possible, thus causing them to perform and find strategies to reach their goal (Locke & Latham, 2002).
New research findings since the Miner's review
One of the findings since Miner’s review was the difference between the expectancy theory and the goal-setting theory. Expectancy theory is a predetermined award versus consequence system. When an employee expects to get something for doing...