Introduction of Organizational Culture
In general, organizational behaviour can be defined as a code of behaviour, seeks to comprehend the people behaviour as they react in organizations. Culture is part of the topic will be covered as well. Withdrawing from the studies in anthropological that concentrate on the organizational values, belief and norms regarding the way of things should be done in an exceptional organizational environment. There are many authors which has been characterized the organizational culture as extraordinary quality and technique of the organization that something to do with people (Kilman et al; 1985) and how things are done in an organizations (Deal & Kennedy, 1982). One of the definition that can be adopts is Hofstede (1980). According to Hofstede (1980), he refers organizational culture as the collective programming of the mind that differentiates the members of one from another. The differentiation of organizational culture is through the perspective of beliefs, practice and values. In addition, Martin and Siehl (1983) had also stated culture is the glues that hold together an organization through shared patterns of meaning, core values, outline and strategies to strengthen content.
Linking with the above definition, organizational culture can also be indicates by Brown (1998) as the kind of beliefs, values, and learned ways of subsist with experience that have established during the course of an organization background, and which suppose to be explicit in its material arrangements and the members behaviours. In Schein (1992), organizational culture is extremely difficult to change, outlasting organizational products, services and other attributes of the organization. In general, there has one argument which came out as one best culture, Peters and Waterman (1982) whose ideally discuss more detail regarding the important empirical studies and Ouchi (1981) are most probably the most significant author that focuses on Japanese culture. This approach has been called Theory Z, Maslow claims that this considers the highest hierarchy form of self-actualization.
Deal and Kennedy’s cultural model
Based on the book in Knights, D and Willmott, H. (2012) had stated these prominent writers whom are Charles Handy, Deal and Kennedy. These both well known writers, who borrows substantially from Harrison (1972). There are four major types, which has introduced by Charles Handy (1993) that are the power culture, the task culture, the role culture, and the person or cluster culture. Handy research is trying to help an individual for understanding why a person is being more pleasant and comfortable in certain organizations than the other one.
Thus, there are another approach, which has introduced by Deal and Kennedy’s (1988), this are referring to two quantities, advocated that the biggest single influence on culture of a company was the environment in which it operated. It can know as corporate culture (Deal & Kennedy, 1982)....