1. Organizational Justice
The idea of justice has become noticeable building in the organizational studies. Researchers and practitioners put a great attention to the concepts of justice in the organization because of the potential results from the study. Perceptions of fairness are used as important factors in explaining, predicting and understanding human behavior in organizations (Hartman & Galle Jr., 1999; Martin & Bennett, 1996; Viswesvaran & Ones, 2002). As Colquitt et al. (2001a) explain that a number of studies on organizational justice have shown that fair treatment has a significant effect on the attitudes of individual employees, such as satisfaction and commitment, and individual behavior, such as attendance and citizenship behavior.
A number of studies explain that justice plays important role in explaining variance in work attitude and behaviors. Studies shows that application of fair conduct from management deliver a positive message to employees that they can be trusted, thereby reducing the fear of exploitation while enhancing the legitimacy of the actions the organization (Lind, 2001, Tyler and Lind, 1992 and Van den Bos, 2001a). Fair treatments will reduce some uncertainty in the daily work life and makes the situation faced by employees can be predicted and controlled (Lind and Van den Bos, 2002 and Thibaut and Walker, 1975). Just behavior has the potential to bring more meaning of work life (Cropanzano et al, 2001 and Folger, 1998.).
a. Definition and Forms of Organizational Justice
The concept of organizational justice is a broad, multifaceted construct, encompassing several dimensions. Perceived justice previously discussed in two different perspectives. As Greenberg (1990) give details, that initially researchers focused on the content - fairness the ends resolution which is called distributive justice, and those who focused on the process – fairness of process through which ends or outcomes are attained. Distributive justice is concerned with the fairness of outcomes, where jjustice quality appears when the results are consistent with implicit norms for allocation, such as equity or equality. Meanwhile, procedural justice are judged as fair if they are implemented adherence to the criteria of a fair process, consistent, unbiased, correctability, representations, accuracy, and ethicality, for the decision (J. A. Colquitt, 2001)
However, the idea of organizational justice consists of two models is still unsettled. After the ‘two model’, one construct followed, by the introduction of interactional justice. Bies and Moag (1986) proposed interactional justice as the third type of justice. It is defined as the quality of interpersonal treatment people received as procedures are implemented (cited in Simons & Roberson, 2003). Interactional justice is raised when decision makers are meet the criteria of truthful, respectful, and considerate in communicating decisions and the extent to which they justify or explain the...