Domains 1 through 6, describe the processes involved in identifying, planning, developing, delivering, marketing and managing the finances competitively when introducing an engineering product or service. Domain 7 and 8 of the Guide to the Engineering Management Body of Knowledge, present research in the Philosophies of Leadership, Management of Organisations and the professional responsibility, ethics and legal issues involved.
The function of management involves being concerned with the activities of others in the organisation. Relationships between suppliers and customers create value chains. Management philosophy has developed and it is accepted that there are too many ...view middle of the document...
4. The Mathematical School models the organisation using mathematical techniques. (linear/non-linear programming) in order to identify optimum systems configuration for maximum productivity.
5. The Decision Theory School, identifies and estimates the probability of occurrence of a situation and the various possible out-comes . In combination with the application of various strategies against each possible out-come, decision rules are then applied to select the best strategy.
6. Scientific Management views workers and machines only slightly differently.
KA 2: MANAGING AND MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE WORKERS
On the 5 Element Integrated Management Model, People Orientation is an important element of Management. The Human Behaviour School provides people oriented management theories such as:
1. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y which assumes two types of workers:
a. In Theory X, workers must be coerced to work, are lazy and want security above all else.
b. In Theory Y, workers are dedicated to organisational objectives and will exercise self-control in order to achieve them.
c. Also these theories are self-fulfilling in that as the manager’s attitude and assumptions are, so becomes the performance of employees.
2. Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Human Needs” which assumes a five level hierarchy, where the needs are achievable from the bottom-up, only if all needs, at each level, are satisfied.
3. Herzberg’s research on professionals identifies Motivators/Satisfiers and Hygienes/Dis-Satisfiers. Motivators are the most effective way to extract higher performance from people. Hygienes must be kept at an appropriate level to prevent dissatisfaction. Any further improvement in Hygienes is found to not have an effect on the performance of people.
4. McClelland’s “The Urge to Achieve” highlights two kinds of people.
a. nAchievers – who are in the minority, who exhibit traits of wanting to achieve even under difficult conditions.
b. nAffiliators – who generally exhibit traits of affiliation, accepting problems and not putting great effort to achieve solutions.
5. Skinner also found that
a. Behaviour that is rewarded tends to be repeated. Reward is not always financial.
b. While behaviour that is ignored tends to be extinguished. Even some unwanted behaviour. If Punishment is to be given, it must merit the offence.
In order to achieve a high performing Organisation, the culture of the organisation should have a Theory Y management approach, where employees are more nAchievers than nAffiliators. Management must realise that knowledge workers’ needs tend to be already higher up on Maslow’s Hierarchy, hence motivators and activities that tend towards achievement are important. Dissatisfaction is often the result of a Theory X attitude, where motivation does not consider the Workers natural needs and attitude towards achievement.
In general, a good manager loves people, and is with his/her employees, rather than above them.
KA3: ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE